400's - Romans abandoned Britain, creating Dark Ages. Roman language did not prevail, religion did.
Gradual division of Britain:
Brythonic west - Britons, Scots, Angles
Teutonic east - Angles
Gaelic north - British and Angles
Scotland, now divided as:
The Picts of Celtic, perhaps of Scythian stock, from Caithness in the north to the Forth in the south.
The Britons of Strathclyde from the Clyde to the Solway and further south into Cumbria.
The late arriving Teutonic Anglo-Saxons, held the lands to the east south of the Forth into Northumbria and the kingdom of Dalriada, to the west, including present-day Argyll, (the land of the Gael).
The Scots, from Northern Ireland occupied Kintyre and the neighboring islands in the third and fourth centuries.
Germanic Angle tribes and Saxons moved from homelands in Denmark and Germany (because of influx of Huns and Avars) to NW coastal plains of Germany between Denmark and the Rhine, then to England with Jutes, joined by Frisians and Swabians and took over lowland plains forcing Celts west to mountain areas of Devon, Cornwall and Wales. NW area called Stathclyde.
Old enemies of Britain return: The Picts and Scots (from Ireland, have not made Scotland yet) under Fergus MacErc's Highlander clan, lead take Dalriada (Scotland), from north and Saxons, Angles, and Jutes to the south and east.
Jutes and Angles control most of Britain, Anglo Saxons have created small areas of Anglia, Mercia, Northumbria.
407 - Nordic, Jute, Angles and Saxons enter Britian, forever changing the racial base of England.
Gracianus Municeps, King of the Britons was assassinated
Constantine II of Brittany declared himself Emperor of the West and King of Briton after his older brother, King Aldrien of Brittany, declined the high throne.
Vandals swept into the Iberian peninsula, Romans and Visigoths retain Roman lands, Visigoths are gifted Gallia Aquitania.
410 - Germanic tribes crossed the Rhine and invaded England, Rome received no help from home to keep Britain. Roman legions withdraw from Europe
410 - Alaric, Visigoth king, sacks weakened Rome
Romans start their evacuation of the Britain Isles, all Roman government dissolved by 442
411 - Roman Emperor Constantius II caught and beheaded Constantine II. Constantine's three sons were Constans, Ambrosius Aurelianus, and Uther Pendragon, legenday father to Arthur. Constans ruled Britain, Ambrosius and Uther were sent to the Budic I, King of Brittany, son of Constantine's brother King Aldrien, for safe keeping against Vortigern, supposedly Constantine's house seneschal/officer. Constantine's son, Constans, was captured and executed at Vienne, France, by Gerontius.
415 March - Hypatia, mathematician daughter of Theon of Alexandria, professor at Alexandria Library, tortured and killed under direction of Cyril of Alexandria
424/5 - Legendary Celt Vortigern comes to power in Britain, sending the Saxons into exile - 421?
426 - Clodio, semi-legendary King of Salian Franks, father of Merovbee, founder of Merovingina Dynasty. Named Long Haired Kings, cutting hair represented losing royal power. Legend says his father was Pharamond (409-426) first king of Franks after Roman departure from Gaul. Ruled same time as Theudemer and Richemer. Took town of Cambrai from Romans.
429 - The first Saxon raid in Britain territory is recorded
431 - Franks settle lower Rhone, Silians by sea, Ripuarians by rivers. Salians were federates of Romans
432 - St Patrick, Celtic born in Roman Britain, founder of Irish Church and son of Romanized British official, kidnapped at 15 by Irish pirates (sold into slavery by Nialll's men?) and taken to Ulster became a Bishop, returned to Ireland from S France to work with heathens, bringing Latin and contact with Rome.
433 - Attila the Hun attacks Roman lands
437 - Vortigern defeats Ambrosius at the Battle of Wallop in Hampshire.
442 - Saxons firmly established at the mouth of the Thames
446 - Marcian and Valentinian were emperors of Britain, ruled seven years.
Germanic Anglians increase invasion from the north of Europe, calling themselves Anglo Saxons and Jutes, settling in Kent and the Isle of Wright.
450 - Legend of Vortigen, ruler of Kent invites Hengist and Horsa (Jutes or Normans) who arrived in Kent (Ebbsfleet) in three long ships to help battle northern barbarians (Picts) in trade for lands, Kent. After nine years they revolted against Vortigern and named they territory Cantii which became Canterbury. After death of joint kings Aethelbert and Eadberht, South Saxon leader Aelle took over area that became Sussex. Other kingdoms were East Saxons (Essex); Middle Saxons (Middlesex), and West Saxons, (Wessex)
South Sussex = Anglo Saxon settlements along rivers
Essex = East Saxon settlements to the north at Essex
Wessex = West Saxons settlements in Berkshire: Wiltshire, Somerset, Dorset, Devon
Mercia = East Angles or East Anglia at Lichfield, Repton, Tamworth
Northumbria = Deira & Benicia settlements along Humber River
450 - Britain had a great famine. Cunedda and his family move south by order of Vortigen to protect Wales from invading Irish
451- Clodio, invaded Rhine area A-161
452 - Atilla the Hun died
455 - Vandals destroy Rome
455 - Hengist, the Saxon Jutish warrior became the first King of Kent, according to the believable tales of bards and legends.
Vortigern is in love with Hengt's daughter, Rowena, and approves more land for Hengst. Vortimer tries to overthrow his father, is killed in battle, Vortigern returns to power.
456 - Childeric I replaced father Merovbee as King of Salain Franks in northern Gaul, fled to Bisinus King of Thuringian Franks and his wife Basina to avoid assassination, returning later where Basina joined him, had son Clovis I.
460's - Cadell Gleaming was the King of Powys
461 - St Patrick' death and the end of his Episcopal organized church. Irish churches resorted to monastery rule (stronger than bishops) cut off from Rome due to barbarian invasions
466 (479?) - Ambrosius Aurelianus, aka Emrys Wledig, son of Brittany's Constantine III (who has been hiding in Brittany since his father's death during childhood) returns to Britain and drives Vortigern to Wales where he rules Powys.
474 - Leo I, Emperor of Byzantine died Feb 3
475 - Visigoths receive complete independence from Rome under Euric
476 - Western Rome ends: Odoacer, German chieftain overthrows last emperor Romulus Augustulus. Odoacer declares himself King of Italy
476 - Childeric I defeated Odoacer, King of the Saxons, ending in treaty to subdue Alamanni, invader of Italy
480's - Rhyddfedd Fryclthe was the King of Powys
481 - Clovis I The Great inherited his father Childeric's kingdom, unified Salian and Ripurian Franks, expanding power to Loire, became Frankish king
484 - First schism (split) between east and west churches
486 - Clovis I defeated Germanic tribes of Gaul and Roman general Syagrius who ruled northern Gaul at Soissons
493 - (by 493) Clovis I married Clothide, daughter of Chilperic II, King of Burgundians
493 - Theodoric the Great establishes Ostrogothic kingdom of Italy
495 - Cerdic and Cynric, two Saxon princes from Germany came to Britain, fighting as they landed. Cerdic was said to be son of Elesa, son of Gweis, Wye, Frewin, Fithgar, Brand, Balday, son of Woden (Odin) Anglo-Saxon god, who went back to Adam. See Hengist, king of Kent (?)
496 - Clovis I defeated Alamanni and converted to Christianity, becoming first Christian ruler of post Roman Gaul. Took Aquitane from Visogothic King Alaric II.
Clovis I founded Church of Holy Apostles at Paris.
496/500 - British general Ambrosius Aurelians defeated Anglo Saxons invasion at Mount Badon at the upper Thames, becoming King Arthur legend.
498 - Fergis Mor Mac, great grandson of Niall of Nine Hostages becomes King of Ireland
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