800's - Danes taught the Brits how to comb their hair. The Vikings brought ponies to Iceland
800's - Celtic Pict king selection while the old king lived became Scottish inheritence.800 - Haleys' comets seen again as "fiery dragons" written by A S Chronicle.
800 - Charlemagne arrived in Rome to clear Pope Leo III of charges of mass conspiracy, Pope took oath of innocence at holy tomb of Saint Peter, then accepted by all.
Charlemagne crowned on Christmas Day by Pope Leo presents him with gold crown and the only time in history, prostrates himself to Charlemagne in honour.
801 - Moslems reduced in NE Spain, Barcelona taken by Charlemagne
Pope crowned Charlemagne's sons, Pepin King of Italy, Louis I the Pious King of Aquitane
802 - Egbert, (still considered a Bretwalda and Lord of Britain in service to Charlemagne) took over Wessex, first break in Mercia's hold, conquered Mercia, controlled some of Northumbria and received recognition from all the little kings. United Britain from Scotland borders to English channel.
802 - Beorhtric dies, Egbert recognized as the King of Wessex, the first official King of England. (Opposed to being a Bretwalda)
802 - Vikings invade Iona, Scotland, returning in 804 to kill 68 monastary members
806 - Aclfwald becomes King of Northumbria, replaced by Eardwuld in 808 to 810
808 - Cyngen Cadell , son of Cadell Brochfael became King of Powys
810 July - Pepin, King of Italy, Charlemagne's son, dies
810 - Eanred, son of Eardwulf becomes King of Northumbria
c 810 - Olaf II Gudrodsson becomes King of Norway
811 Dec - Charles aka Carloman, Charlemagne's son dies
??? - Charlemagne marries Irene Byzantium of Rome to ease tensions
813 Oct - Charlemagne spent entire month hunting
814 Jan 28 - Charlemagne dies at 70, turns over power to only living legitimate son, Louis I the Pious who becomes Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
815 - Egbert invaded Cornwall, devasting the kingdom
817 - Louis
I the Pious crowned Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, divided Frankish
lands to sons:
Lothiar I got Francia, most of Burgundy, Germany, Gallic , became King of Italy
Pepin got Aquitane, some of Burgundy, Septimanis, became King of Aquitane
Louis the German got Bavaria, became King of Germany
Charles II the Bald got Neustria and Aquitane when Pepin died, became King of France
Charles and Louis rivaled against Lothair.
825 - Egbert defeats Beornwulf of Mercia at the Battle of Ellendun, acknowledged as Bretwalda by Sussex, Essex Kent and East Anglia. Subdues Celts in Cornwall. Athelstan, King of the East Angles sought protection having slain Bernwulf from Mercia. Egbert's son, Ethelwulf subdued and became sub king over Essex, Sussex and Kent. He appointed his son, Athelbald the sub king of these areas when he became King of Wessex.
825 - Swedish Vikings led by Rurik reached Kiev, Russia, establishing river settlements on the way, major settlement at Novgorod, Rurik became first ruler, later called Moscow. Kiev Vikings called themselves Varangians and set up first Russian state, would rule until Mongol invasions led by Gengis Khan in the 1200's.
827 - Moslems conquer Sicily
829 - Egbert declared "Bretwalda" (sole ruler) by Northumbria
830 - Egbert led an army through Mercia to north Wales to subdue Cyngen Cadell, King of Powys.
834 - Alpin MacEcochaid ruled Galloway, but his existance is still shadowy despite being the father of Kenneth I MacAlpin
834 - Catholic Church proclaims Nov 1 to be All Saints Day
835 - Danes devasted Sheppey in Kent
836 - Danes landed at Carhampton (Charmouth) in Devon, defeated Egbert, his only defeat.
838 - Danes allied with Cornish to declare all out war on the Saxons, they met at Hingston Down near Callington on the Devon Cornwall border. Egbert prevailed, although probably not in the battle at age sixty.
839 - Egbert died, succeeded by his son Æthelwulf without approval of the Witan. His daughter Eadgyth (Edith) became a nun at the Poleworth Abbey in Warwickshire.
839 - Æthelwulf, Egbert's son and sub king of Kent, takes over England. Ethelwulf', a wise king, requested his four sons each became king in turn to avoid takeover from invading Vikings from Denmark. Sons were Æthelbald , Æthelbert, Æthelred I, and Alfred the Great
839 - Alpin MacEochaid, son of Eochaid IV becomes King of Dalriada, Kintyre and Scotland. They believe the Stone of Scone was first used in his coronation at the village of Scone in southeast Scotland
839 - A major Viking force landed in Galloway, devasted the Picts under Eoganan near St Filians, killing off all the Scot and Pict royalty and aristocracy.
840 - Louis I dies, his son, Lothiar I becomes Emperor of the Holy Roman
840 - Danish Vikings (nearly 10,000 men) attacked Ireland, settling in Dublin, Wexford and Waterford, later Orkney, Hebrides, Shetlands and Isle of Man under Viking control.
841 - Danish Vikings traveled up Seine and plundered Rouen, France
841 - Kenneth I MacAlpin, son of Alpin becomes King of Alba, Dalriada, Scotland
841 - Aethelred II, son of Eanred becomes King of Northumbria
841 - Charles II the Bald and Louis the German defeat Lothair, last Merovigina Frankish king at Fontenay, see treaty of 843
842 - Danish Vikings with bases in Ireland plunder a monastery at Clonmacnoise in Ireland
843 - Kenneth Mac Alpin took Pict's throne and established capital Forteviot in Pict territory
843 June 24 - Danish Vikings sailed up Loire and plundered Nantes, France
843 - Treaty of Verdun divided Charlemagne's Frankish Carolingian empire:
Lothiar I kept title of Emperor and King of Italy, Provence and Burgundy.
Controlled "middle kingdom" from North Sea to middle Italy
Louis the German kept eastern empire east of the Rhine as the King of the East Franks (Germany)
Charles II the Bald kept West Franks west of the Rhine, Francia, Aquitane, Gascony, Septimania (France)
When Lothair died, Louis got Italy, Charles got Provence, Lothair II got Lorraine
844 - Rhodri Mawr, grandson of Cynan Rhodri, became King of Gwynedd
844 - Vikings raided valley of Garonne, France, then Seville, Spain
845 - Frankish lands invaded by Norsemen
848 - Osbeorht becomes King of Northumbria
850/851 - Danes sacked Dorobernia, chasing off Berthwulf, King of Mercia, then came to London to take over Canterbury and Mercia, stopped by Æthelstan of Wessex at Ac-lea and at Kent, Sandwich.
The Danes, known as pagans, wintered over for the first time on island called Sheppey in the Thames between Essex and Kent, named because of the sheep. This gave them a head start in the spring for new raids.
Swedish Vikings reached Kiev, Russia, establishing river settlements on the way, major settlement at Novgorod, Rurik became the first ruler, later called Moscow.
853 - King Burhred of Mercia asked Æthelwulf as King of the Saxons for help to overcome midlands.
Æthelwulf sent Alfred to Rome to live with Pope Leo IV
854 - Edmund I ruled East Anglia
855 - Rhodri Mawr Merfyn became King of Powys at abdication or death? of uncle Cyngen Cadell, King of Powys
855 - Æthelwulf left with son Alfred to Rome, placing sons Æthelbald and Ærhelbert (as King of Kent) in control. Ethelbald plotted to take over the crown while his father was on the pilgrimage to Rome, assisted by Bishop of Sherbourne and Ealdorman of Somerset. Æthelwulf returned to be only a sub king of Kent with his son Ærhelbert.
855 - Vikings attacked coast of Anglesey, kingdom of Gwynedd
855 - Lothiar I dies, his son, Louis II becomes Emperor of the Holy Roman
856 October - Æthelwulf (aged 61) married Judith of France (aged 13) daughter of Charles II the Bald. At the marriage, the archbishop Hincmar of Rheims, placed a crown on her head, making her queen, an activity outlawed since Beorhtric's wife Eadburh had done something wicked in her position 60 years earlier.
856 - Vikings trying to take Wessix
856 - Rhodri Mawr Merfyn kills Danish Viking leader Gorm
858 - Æthelwulf dies, full control of England goes to Æthelbald who married the queen, Judith of France who was his stepmother. The marriage was annulled by the church the fllowing year and she returned home to marry Baudouin I
860 - Æthelbald died, Æthelbert ruled at 30 years old
Vikings attacked the capital Winchester but were cut off from retreat to the coast and slaughtered
863 - Constantine I MacAlpin, son of Kenneth becomes King of Alba and Scotland. Some sources say this is when Kenneth took the throne of the Scots. Scot was used to describe the Picts that came from Ireland and settled in what is now Scotland.
863 - Aelle II, usurper, becomes King of Northumbria
865 - Varangians, Swedish Vikings from Russia tried to capture Constantinople but failed. Emperor offered them trading privileges.
865 - Entire host of Danish Vikings landed in East Anglia led by Ragnar Lodbrock after they wintered over in Thanet, despite a treaty with the Saxons, the Vikings plundered Kent and advanced up the east coast.
865 - Burgred of Mercia attacked Anglesey again but withdrew because Vikings were attacking Mercia, led by Ragnar Lodbrock Lodbrok was killed on a raid in York by Aelle,
866 - Æthelbert died, Æthelred I took over when Danes controlled most of Northumbria
866 Nov - Lodbrok's sons, Ivarr the Boneless and Half Dan the Whiteshirt conquered York in retaliation for their father's death, Deira then became a Viking kingdom.
866 - Æthelred I ruled to 871. Danes, now firmly in control of Northumbria
867 - Ecgberht I becomes King of Northumbria under Norse York rule
868 - Alfred marries Ealhswith of Gaini , Mercia, thusly their children would be able to claim both Wessex and Mercian royal blood.
869 - The Danish Vikings Lodbrok's sons, Ivarr the Boneless and Half Dan the Whiteshirt sailed to East Anglia and killed Edmund I, the local king, with extreme viciousness. Wessex now stands alone
869 - Charles II the Bald crowned King of Lorraine (France)
870 Dec 31 - Ethelred I of Wessex beat back a Danish invasion army at Englefield
870 - Lothair II died, Treaty of Mersen and Louis forced Charles to divide Frankish lands
870 - Moslems dominated Sicily, Corsica, Balearic Islands
Carloman of France, son of Charles the Bald emerged from monastery retirement and was blinded, ran to uncle Louis the German for protection, died in 874.
871 - Rhodri Mawr Merfyn became King of Seisyllwg at drowning of Gwgon Meurig, wife's brother.
870/871 - Danish Vikings aided by forces led by Guthrum turn to Wessex and take Reading (Jan 8) where Æthelred I (in second of command) and Alfred barely escape, regroup at Ashdown but were defeated the Danish kings Bagseg and Halfdan at the Battle of Ashdown (Jan 6). Alfred returns next year, pays homage to Vikings if they leave his territory. Humiliating, but gave Alfred five years to build defenses. Alfred started a navy force to combat the Vikings on their level.
871 Mar 2- Æthelred I was fatally wounded in the battle at Meredune (Marton, Maeretun, Martin in Hampshire?) with the Danes, taken to Witchampton near Wimborne where he died Apr 23. Alfred takes over
872 - Harold Fairhair took over Norway
874 - First Norweigan Viking settlements in Iceland
875 - Emperor Louis II died, Charles II the Bald crowned King of Italy and Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in Rome
876 - Danes divided forces, remained North under Halfdene in settlements and moved southwards under King Guthorm, descends on Alfred's camp at Wareham but loses.
877 - Danes raided Anglesey with a stronger base in Dublin and Western Isles, Rhodri fled to Ireland.
877 Guthrum attacked Wessex by marching through to Dorsetshire. Alfred offered Danegelds which they accepted and withdrew to attack Exeter and was able to hold against Alfred. The Viking fleet of one hundred and twenty ships and five thousand men on its way to fortify Guthrum was lost, losing their supply line. Alfred surrounded Exeter and forced their surrender.
877 - Charles
II the Bald dies
Baudouin I (son-in-law) gets Flanders
Louis III, grandson thru Louis II The Stammerer gets Neustria
Carloman, grandson thru Louis II The Stammerer gets Aquitane, Septimania and Burgundy
878 - Rhodri returned to Gwynedd to face attack from Ceolwulf II of Mercia, now a vassal for the Danes. Rhodri died in the battle of Conway.
878 - King Guthorm, descends on Alfred's camp at Wareham, to take Wessex at Exeter and takes the royal manor of Chippenham . Alfred took refuge on Isle of Athelney in Somerset to gather forces, returns to take took Danes at Battle of Eddington. Guthorm agreed to be baptized and withdraw forces from Wessex. Legends about Alfred in disguise to spy on Viking camps and burning the cakes enters at this time. Alfred's forces in Devon defeated the Danes at the battle of Ethandune (Edington?) and Guthorm beceomes a Christian. Peace was declared with the Treaty of Wedmore.
While Alfred stopped Norse (from Norway, Denmark, and Sweden) invasion at Edington. East Anglia, South Mercia (most of England) remained Danish with Scandanavian Kings, Alfred controlled Wessex/ London with the Peace of Wedmore Treaty with Dane King Guthrun that depicts North South (Danelaw) divide today. Alfred famous for return of religion, educational increases, broader laws.
Alfred marries daughter Aetheflaed to Ealdorman Duke of Mercia to consolidate alliances with Danes and marries daughter Aelfthryth to the Count of Flanders, a strong naval power when Vikings settled in Eastern England.
878 - Anaward Rhodri, son of Rhodri Mawr, became King of Gwynedd, Merfyn Rhodri, son of Rhodri Mawr, became an under King of Powys
879 - Charles the Fat, son of Louis the German, declared King of the East Franks
879 - Louis II The Stammerer died, his son Louis III crowned King of France, who died Aug 25, 882, aged 19
879 - Boso King of Provence established the Kingdom of Burgundy (Cisjuran Burgundy)
879 - Rurik the Scandanavian Viking who started Moscow died. His son, Igor became Grand Prince of Kiev
880- Rhodri Mawr's three sons wage revenge war on Mercia at Battle of Conway
881 - Charles the Fat declared Emperor
882 - Norse men, starving at home, invaded England again by the Thames River, only to be met by a prepared Alfred.
883 - York became under Norse King rule
884 - Charles the Fat declared King of the West Franks instead of five year old Charles III the Simple, brother of Louis and Carloman.
885 - Anaward Rhodri allied with the Danes of York with an established kingdom under Gothfrith.
885 - Norse Vikings sailed up the Seine to attack Paris, met by Eudo, Count of Paris, Marquis of Neustria, son of Count Robert the Strong. Vikings offered to bypass Paris for free passage, France refused, Vikings assaulted Paris for two years. Emperor Charles the Fat and large German army fought Vikings.
886 - Alfred's Treaty of Wedmore divided England, giving East Anglia (Lincolnshire and Yorkshire) and part of Mercia to the Danes, creating the Danes law line. Vikings had to be baptized and accept Christianity
Asser, a Welshman, bishop of Sherbourne and Alfred's counselor wrote an unfinished account of Alfred's life.
887 - Charles the Fat failed to aid against the Norseman and was removed from power.
892 - Danish Vikings land at Kent, get to Chester and Wales, defeated by Alfred
892 - Arnulf takes Rome, formally crowned 896
888 - Eudo named King of the West Franks, some chose Charles III
899 28 Oct - Alfred the Great died at Winchester, Edward I "The Elder" became King of England, granted loyalty by all. Edward and sister Ethelfleda began conquest of Danelaw, completed under Æthelstan.
889 - Donald II MacAlpin, son of Constantine becomes King of Alba and Scotland
894 - Danes ravage Gwynedd under Anaward Rhodri who gets support from Alfred's Saxon troops
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