Timeline Main Page Packrat Main Page
Third Crusade: 1188 to 1195, and build up from 1176 and aftermath
to 1198 in a nutshell:
Raynald of Chatillon breaks the treaty with Saladin
Saladin takes Tiberias, Acre, Ascalon, Jerusalem and controls most of Palestine
German Barbarossa, Richard the Lionhearted and King Philip of France join the new crusade
Crusaders take Cyprus, Acre and retain coastal cities
Treaty of Jaffa with Saladin
Richard is captured on the way home
Teutonic Knights are formed
Kings of Jerusalem: Baldwin IV, Guy Lusignan., Isabella I, Conrad I, Henry I, Amalric I
Byzantine Emperors: Andronicus I Comnenus, Issac II Angelus, Alexius III
Tyre, Tripoli and Antioch are in Christian hands.
1176 - Sybilla is married in the fall toWilliam of Montferrat who died the following June, leaving the widowed Sibylla pregnant with the future Baldwin V. Raymond takes Jaffa and Ascalon from Agnes and gives them to William.
Raynald of Chatillon is finally released having been captured in 1180, Baldwin made him lord of Kerak, a fortress to the east of the Dead Sea. Raynald raids caravans and attacks Mecca, enraging the Moslems.
1176 - Philip of Flanders shows up demanding to be regent and his vassals marry the princesses, Isabella and Sybilla. The counsel led by Baldwin of Ibelin says no, Philip goes home angry. Rumor has it that Sybilla and Baldwin of Ibelin were lovers, so she had no interest in marriage.
1177 - Raymond III of Tripoli stands down as regent. Baldwin's mother, Agnes, convinces him to make Joscelin III the seneschal.
Baldwin allows his step mother Maria to marry Balian of Ibelin.
1177 Nov 27 - Victory at Montgisard, the Crusade's most splendid victory. 500 knights, 80 Templars, 3000 all told won against 30,000 Mamelukes led by Saladin. Raynald led the armies, Saladin barely escaped.
1179 - Baldwin of Ibelin is captured by Saladin after the Battle of Jacob's Ford, letters are exchanged with Sybilla who asks him to marry her, setting the wedding after his release.
1179 - Barbarossa fights Conrad of Montferrat, son of William, allied with Manuel.
1180- Agnes gets Baldwin marries Sybilla to Hugh (Gui) de Lusigan who is allied with Raynald. Raymond and Bohemond march to intervene but do not want to start an actual war and retreat home.
1180 - Manuel I dies, leaving the Byzantine empire to his son, Alexius II who rules to 1183.
1182 - Baldwin makes Guy regent.
1182 - The last of the byzantine Comneni dynasty rulers Andronicus Comnenustakes the throne, widely hated and killed in a revoltion in 1185.
1183 - Agnes had Baldwin marry his sister Isabella to Humphrey IV of Toron, an ally to Agnes, thus neutralizing the Ibelin-Maria faction. Saladin besieged the fortress with the wedding guests inside. Baldwin lifted the siege, Guy refused to fight Saladin and Saladin's troops simply went home. Lady Kerak reminded Saladin he had carried her as a child when he was a slave and prisoner at her castle, (??) he kindly tells his warrior to refrain from attacking the newlyweds.
Baldwin deposed Guy as regent who retired to Ascalon in disgrace, taking Sibylla with him.
1183 - Alexius II is murdered with a garrotte on Andronicus Comnenus's orders, who becomes the Emperor of the Byzantine Empire and Constantinople until 1185. He marries Alexius's widow, Agnes of France, the daughter of Louis VII and his third wife, Adèle of Champagne.
1184 - Agnes dies in Acre, her widower Reginald of Sidon later married Helvis, a daughter of Maria Comnena and Balian of Ibelin.
1184 - Baldwin attempts to have Sybilla's marriage to Guy anulled. Unsuccessful, Baldwin excludes Sybilla and appoints his nephew, Baldwin V heir under the regency of Raymond of Tripoli, with the instructions that if Baldwin V was to die young, either Sybilla or Isabella would take the crown.
Enter some bad guys:
Heraclius, Patriarch of Jerusalem whose private life was a scandal and who headed a plot to kill Baldwin IV. Sybilla chose him to be Patriarch over William of Tyre, the next in line for the job, some say because she was his mistress. William became Heralius's devote enemy.
Gerard of Ridfort, Grand Master of the Temple and enemy of Raymond of Tripoli (Raymond of Toulouse). Raymond had promised a rich woman to Gerard, changed his mind and gave to to the Italian, Plivano instead, Gerard huffed off to Jersalem and became Grand Master when the old one died.
1185 - The Temple Church in Golgotha (where Jesus was crucified) was consecrated in honor of the Blessed Virgin Mary by Heraclius, Patriarch of Jerusalem. King Henry II was present.
1185 Mar 16 - Baldwin IV dies, Sibylla and her uncle Joscelin III of Edessa garrisoned Jerusalem with loyal troops and barred Raymond from the funeral.
1185 - Andonicus is away from the castle, his lieutenant orders the execution of Isaac II Angelus, the descendant of Alexius I. Issac flees, gathers the people, and when Andronicus returns, he is tortured for three days and finally killed Sept 12. Issac II Angelus becomes the Constantinople's Byzantine Emperor to 1195.
1186 - On a Friday, without the agreement of the barons, Sybilla gathers Raymond of Tripoli, Gerard, Reynald and Heraclius, the latter crowns her queen on the condition she divorce Guy. She agreed, but turned around and remarried Guy, much disliked because of his stupity and cruelty. Guy is supported by the Templars but not the Hospitallers.
Raymond III and the nobles attempted to stage a coup in order to place Isabella on the throne with her husband Humphrey IV of Toron, who did not want to provoke a civil war, and gave his support to Sibylla and Guy. Raymond III, disgusted, returned home to Tripoli, and other nobles, such as Baldwin of Ibelin, also fled the kingdom.The kingdom is split, chaos reigns.
Humphrey's mother is Stephanie, Lady of Kerak. Constance of Antioch, Raymond of Poitiou's widow is dazzled by Reynald of Chatillion, and gave him one of her best lands. After she died, Reynald marries the Lady of Kerak.
1186 - Reynald of Chantillion breaks the truce with Saladin by attacking a Muslim caravan crossing from Babylon to Damascus and passing by Kerak, and taking prisoners, including Saladin's sister, Esclamonda. Saladin asks Guy for the return of the caravan and his sister, Guy asks Reynald who replies no, he is king of his own lands and owes no peace to Saladin. Saladin declares Reynald will die.
Reynald was known for his cruelty, supposedly capturing the Patriarch of Constantinople (Theodosius I Borradiotes , Basil II Carnaterus or Nicetas II Muntanes?), cutting his head open, laying the cuts with honey and leaving him in the sun to be eaten by insects.
Guy asks Gerard, the Master of the Hospitallers Brother Roger of les Moulins, Josias Archbishop of Tyre, Balian of Ibelin and Reynald of Sidon to approach Raymond of Tripoli and request help against Saladin, being he is the most experienced knight in the realm. Reynald went his own path, Balian said he would catch up after an errand, the others continue. Meanwhile, on May 1, Saladin is given permission from Raymond to cross Tripoli as long as he is peaceful. The Master of the Temple hears Turks are in Tripoli, doesn't listen to his companions, gathers troops and finds Saladin at the Spring of Cresson. Saracens 7,000, Christians 140. The Master of the Temple escapes with three knights, all the rest are slaughtered. Saladin parades the heads of all in front of Tiberias but goes home peacefully. Balian was late due to staying for Mass in Sebastea, hears the news in Nazareth, arrives late and reunites with Raymond.
Saladin returns with 80,000 troops, takes lower Tiberias easily. Raymond's wife, Countess Echiva and children are in the citadel. Guy wants to march to Tiberias, Raymond says it's too hot, go to Acre instead, Master of the Temple convinces Guy that Raymond is a traitor, so off they go leaving Balain in charge of Jerusalem, taking with them the Holy Cross discovered by Constantine's mother in 326. On their march, the run into a sorceress who claims she put a spell on the barbarians for Saladin and was on her way to get paid. The Christians burnt her alive, a story the church forbid anyone to believe.
1187 - Isaac offers his sister Theodora to Conrad of Montferrat
1187 Jul - Saladin crosses the River Jordon, defeats the Crusaders at the Battle of the Horns of Hittin and takes control of most of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, including Tiberias
Jul 04 - At the Battle of Hittin, the Saracens came up on the camped Christians, and set up their camps surrounding them so closely "you could have whispered together" or "not a cat could have slipped through the net." The Christians were out numbered ten to one. In the morning, Raymond asks Saladin why he does not attack. Saladin replies you are invading on my territory, you must strike first. Saladin chastised his son for saying the war was over as he found Christians hiding in the king's tent, Saladin said the war was not over until the king's tent was down, and immediately took it down. Prisoners included the King, his brother Geoffrey, Amaury, Reynald Lord of Kerak, Lord of Jebail, son of Humphrey, the constable of Jerusalem, the Grand Master of the Templars and Hospitallers and many Hospitaller and Templar knights. Raymond of Tripoli, Reynold of Sidon, and Balian of Ibelin made it back to safety. Other stories tell how Saladin beheaded each Templar one by one, and they bore their deaths silently and bravely.
The water story, portrayed in the movie "Kingdom of Heaven" is accurate, including the "Kings do not kill Kings" statement and the giving of water indicating one is safe with your enemy. Saladin beheads Reynald of Chatillon/Kerak.
Saladin moves north and takes Acre, Beruit and Sidon easily, then Nazareth, Caesarea, and Ascalon. Some members of the Order stayed to guard their church. Saladin was advised to destroy Acre to prevent Crusaders from taking it back, but he said the city was too beautiful. Instead, he had Egyptian Emir ed-Din Caracusch to fortify the wall as he had done at Cairo.
Saladin now has all the inland cities except Jerusalem, al-Karak, and al-Shawbak in Transjordan and a few other fortresses, as well as the major ports except Tyre, allowing clear travel between Egypt and Palestine and the blockage of incoming Euroepean ships. Jerusalem, which comfortably holds 30,000 was packed with double this population due surrounding cities seeking refuge.
A delegation of citizens from Jerusalem went to Saladin, asking for a peaceful solution. An eclipse of the sun that say was read as a bad omen. Saladin made a generous offer which the delegates turned down. Another example of Saladin's honour comes in a story of Ibelin, who asks from Tyre to pass to Jerusalem in order to take his wife, Anna Comnena, away safely. Saladin grants his passge on the condition he bears no arms and returns the following day. Ibelin was pressured to remain and ends up being the leader in the defense against Saladin when Jerusalem is taken back. Ibelin sends his apologies for breaking his word and prepares Jerusalem for attack, Finding only two knights who survived Hittin, he knights and hires every man over the age of eighteen.
1187 Sep 18 or 21 - Saladin arrives outside the walls of Jerusalem. The
walls give way after two days of attack by Saladin who had 'Greek fire' aka
After negotiations, the Latins are allowed to leave the city safely after paying a ransom. The city gates were closed for control while Latins packed and sold their belongings to the Moslems and Christinas alike. Those with money left, while the poor were to be enslaved despite Ibelin's offer to pay 30,000 dinars for all the poor. Saladin eventually releases 1200, and declares the older people did not have to pay. Many of the nobles were released without ransom, including Sybilla, who received an escort from Saladin's men to visit her husband in prison. In the end, 7,000 men and 8,000 women and children were ensalved.
The Europeans left in three groups under Saladin's protection: those with the Templars, those with the Hospitallers and those with Ibelin. The Templars headed to overcrowded Tyre, the Hospitallers to Tripoli, while Ibelin's group headed towards Egypt to be eventually shipped back to Europe.
1187 Oct 2- Saladin takes over Jerusalem, postponing his actual entrance into the city for two days in order to take over on the anniversary of the day the Muslims believe Muhammed ascended from the Dome of the Rock to heaven. The great golden cross of the Dome is shattered and replaced with the crescent symbol of Islam. Jews returned to Jerusalem along with immigrants from France, Maghreb and Yemen, while Latins were denied access for four years.
1187 Oct - News of Hattin and Jerusalem reach Rome. William II of Sicily sends a fleet which helps save Tyre and Tripoli. The Archbishop of Tyre pleads with England and France to help, they sign a treaty Jan 1188. Richard vows to take the cross before his father, Henry does.
1187 Dec 30 - Conrad Montferrat manages to save Tyre from Saladin and the Egyptians. Saladin hesitated over Beaufort property, promised to him in three months time, making it to Tyre too late. Another version, per Roger of Hoveden: Conrad was fleeing a murder charge in Constantinople, left his wife, Issac's niece, made it Tyre to find it essentially empty from the previous battle and staves off Saladin.
1187 - Raymond died in Tyre of pleurisy. He had appointed as his successor his godson Raymond of Antioch, although this Raymond's father Bohemund III of Antioch installed his younger son Bohemund IV as count.
1188 - William II of Sicily sent a fleet with 200 knights. April 6, 1189, Ubaldo, Archbishop of Pisa, arrived with 52 ships.
1189 May 11- German leader Frederick I Barbarossa joins the crusades as an adult. His army is too large for ships, the largest army in all the crusades, and they must cross the land. Emperor Issac II Angelus of Byzantine has made a treaty with Saladin against the Crusaders, Barbarossa has to cross his lands quickly. Emperor Isaac II Angelus formed a secret alliance with Saladin to impede Frederick's progress in exchange for his empire's safety, irritating Frederick tremendously.
1189 Summer - Guy is released, he and Sybilla seek shelter at Tyre where they are turned away, Conrad refused to recognize him as king. Guy sets up camp outside the city, but befreinds William II and Ubaldo. They turn to attack Acre.
1189 July 6 - Henry II King of England dies after battle with his son, Richard I and Philip of France. Richard was battling with the Count of Toulouse, suddenly switches side to France and wars against his father again., the first time being a failure in 1173 with his brothers Geoffrey and Henry.
1189 Aug 28 to July 12 1191 - Battle of Acre.
1189 Aug 28 - Guy arrives, the Sicilians leave when William II dies, Danish and Frisian fleets show up, French and Flemish soldiers also arrived under James of Avesnes, Henry I of Bar, Andrew of Brienne, Robert II of Dreux, and his brother Philip of Dreux, the Bishop of Beauvais. Germans under Margrave Louis III of Thuringia and Otto I of Guelders, and Italians under Archbishop Gerhard of Ravenna and the Bishop of Verona, also arrived.
1189 Sept 15 - Saladin attacks Guy's camp unsuccesfully.
1189 Oct 4 - Gerard de Ridefort, Grand Master of the Templars, was killed. Andrew of Brienne was also killed and Conrad had to be rescued by Guy.
1190 Mar - Barons indebted to banking Jews led by Richard Malebys rioted and burned out Jews who fled to the castle in York. The citadel was captured on Mar 16, the remaining Jews were killed or commited suicide, their records were burnt.
1190 May 18 - Frederick seizes Konya aka Iconium, and easily gets to Armenian territory of Cilia by the end of May as the Turks were reluctant to attack such a large army.
1190 Summer - Henry II of Champagne, Thibaut V de Blois, Stephen I of Sancerre, Ralph of Clermont, John of Fontigny, Alain of Saint-Valéry, the Archbishop of Besançon, the Bishop of Blois, and the Bishop of Toul arrive from France.
1190 June 10 - Barbarossa drowns, 70 years old, thrown from his horse and from the weight of his armour in the Saleph River in Cilicia near Seleucia, his son Frederick IV takes his body to Antoch, most of his troops return home, some cross Syria to Antioch with heavy losses or die in Antioch from the plague.
1190 July - Richard I sets out from Marseille, France on 25 ships, finances by taxes for which the Jews paid more than others.
Philip of France sets out after cancelling all debts to Jews, driving them from France and taking their property.
Autumn - Sybilla and and her daughters die of disease, Guy losses the crown as a result. The Barons pull off marrying Isabella to Conrad despite the fact they are both married (Bishop of Beauvais grants their divorce on Nov 24) and Guy is cut out of the picture completely and permanently.
1190 - Sept - Richard and Philip arrive in Sicily. Richard had gone by sea around Spain, Philip by land to Genoa and then by sea. William II of Sicily had died, his cousin Tancred took control and imprisoned William's wife and Richard's sister, Joan. Richard attacked Messina Oct 4, a treaty was signed between Richard, Philip and Tancred Oct 8 1190 or March 1191. Relatons between Richard and Philip start to fall apart when Richard, who is supposed to marry Philip's sister, Alice, declares he will not marry her, based on the fact that he not only doesn't like her, he believes the rumors she slept with his father. Instead, his mother arranges a marriage to a princess of Navarre, Berengaria.
1191 Jan 20 - Frederick's son, the Duke of Swabia dies, the German army falls apart even further, leaving the English and French to lead the crusade.
1191 Mar 30 - Philip sets sail for Tyre, Richard leaves April 10.
1191 Apr - King Philip of France arrives at Tyre, met by his cousin, Conrad of Montferrat, who was now calling himself King of Jerusalem, and leave to take Acre April 20.
1191 May - Richard's ships stop at Crete and Rhodes, but two of his ship wreck at Cyprus, including his treasury. Richard's sister Joan and fiancee Berengaria, supposedly accompanied by his mother Eleanor make it safely to Limassol, but are not treated well bu the residing ruler Isaac Ducas Comnenus, independent of Byzantine but hateful of all Franks. The women won't leave the ship and set sail before Richard arrives May 8. Richard's ship catches up, Richard enters Limassol on May 6, 1191, talks Issac into returning his property and sending 500 knights to the Crusade. Issac returns to his castle and breaks his oaths. On May 11 Richard loots the island and massacred those trying to resist him with the help of newly arrived King Guy and Bohemond.
May 12 - Richard was finally able to marry Berengaria, first-born daughter of King Sancho VI of Navarre, whose brother Sancho (the future Sancho VII) was allegedly one of Richard's early lovers. The marriage was held in Limassol at the Chapel of St. George.
May 13 - The rest of Richard's ships arrive, they finish off the conquest of Cyprus by the end of May, and departs June 5. After Richard leaves the island the natives riot. Templar Grand Master Robert de Sable offers Richard 100,000 bezants for the island, hoping to establish a Templar territory. De Sable had wars to fight, left 14 Templars under the command of Armand Bouchart who were not able to hold the island. Richard takes back the island and sells it to Guy of Lusignan who allows both the Templars and the Hospitallers to stay and use as a base.
Saladin's army to so large that no more reinforcements can arrive by land, all others have to wait the winter out before help can come from the sea. Theobald of Blois, Stephen of Sancerre and Frederick of Swabia died. Leopold V of Austria took over control of the Christian forces.
1191 June 8 - Richard arrives at Acre to help Philip and takes control.
July 1 - Philip of Alsace, Count of Flanders and Vermandois died, a disaster for the King of France.
Interesting story about Richard and Saladin's brother, al-Adil. They were exchanging requests, gifts, etc, the entire time everyone if fighting. Once Richard sends a servant to ask for some chickens to feed their starving falcons, promising when the falcons were stronger, they would become a gift for Saladin. Al-Adil says, if your king is sick, ask for chickens and I will give you chickens. He gave Richard chickens and said we would speak of this no more. Richard even tried to arrange a marriage between his sister and al-Adil, but the sister refused to marry a Moslem. Richard told him he would have to become Christian if he wanted to pursue the matter. Sorties and skirmishes continued the entire time.
July 4 - Saracens offered surrender, Richard turned the offer down.
July 11 - One final battle, surrender was accepted July 12. The garrison sends a swimmer to Saladain with the news. Richard and Philip argue, Richard wants guy to rule, Philip wants Conrad to rule. They settle on Guy with Conrad following Guy's death, Conrad to keep Tyre, Beirut, and Sidon. Neither will allow Leopold of Austria's flag's to fly, he leaves in anger in August. Unhappily, cronically ill Philip returned home on July 31 (sails on August 2) leaving everything to Richard, including some of his men and hostages that Richard killed. Conrad of Montferrat returns to Tyre, believing his life to be in danger with Richard.
1191 Aug 11 - Saladin delivers first of three payments of money and prisoners, Richard rejects it as certain nobles had not been included.
1191 Aug 20 - Richard feels Saladin delayed too much, and had 2700 of the Muslim prisoners from the garrison of Acre killed, including women and children despite having promised that he would only sell the prisoners off. They were executed the entire day outside the city walls where the Turks could watch, and tried in vain to save them.
1191 Aug 22 - Richard leaves Acre in Crusader control, his troops are under very strict order to stay together. They went south along the water line, constantly watched and followed by Saladin men, hoping to catch Richard off guard.
1191 Sep 7 - Battle of Arsuf , Richard I and Hugh, Duke of Burgundy are finally ambushed by Saladin in Arsuf, a small town near Jaffa 50 miles from Jerusalem, Richard, the Templars and the Hopitallers defeat the Muslims and take Jaffa Sept 10. Richard makes his headquarters there to rest up. Templar Grand Master Robert de Sable offers Richard 100,000 bezants for the island, hoping to establish a Templar territory, and Richard needs Templar gold.
1191 Winter - Saladin moves his army to winter headquarters, Richard moves on to Ascalon, the crusaders are at odds with each other. Richard gets word of his brother, John Lackland's attempt for the crown in England with Philip's help.
1192 - Muslims take Delhi and all of northern and eastern India, prosecuting the Hindus.
1192 Apr - Richard goes to Acre and gathers the Barons who vote against Richard to make Conrad king, Conrad is at Tyre when he hears the news. De Sable at Cyprus had wars to fight, left 14 Templars under the command of Armand Bouchart who were not able to hold the island. Richard takes back the island and sells it to Guy of Lusignan who allows both the Templars and the Hospitallers to stay and use as a base. Guy goes to Cyprus as king.
1192 April 28 - Conrad dines with the Bishop of Beauvaisis before he leaves for Acre. On the way home two Hashshashin assassins stop him, one hands him a letter, the other stabs Conrad to death. The assassin is immediately killed, the other reveals they were sent by the Old Man of the Mountain. Conrad leaves a pregnant Isabella who was urged to turn the kingdom over to Richard. His death remains a speculation.
Henry II of Champagne, Richard's nephew, shows up for the coronation only to attend a funeral, Isabella is impressed and marries him within two weeks. Henry II becomes King of Jerusalem although he had wished to return to Champagne.
1192 May - Richard easily captures Daron and every coastal fortification that had been lost while Saladin is dealing with revolts within his own family.
1192 June 7 - Richard broaches Jerusalem but is turned back to Jaffa by an awaiting Saladin and his extreme tactics by July 4, denying the Crusaders food and water. Ricahrd starts negotiations with Saladin and moves back to Acre, planning to set sail when the treaty is finished.
1192 July 27- Saladin takes Jaffa, Richard takes it back July 31 with 80 knights, 400 bowmen and 2,000 Italian soldiers.
1192 Aug 5 - A final battle take place but Richard is down to 54 knights, 15 horses and 2,000 soldiers. Saladin attacks in seven waves of a thousand men each, but loses each time. Richard's horse is killed underneath him and Saladin sends two to replace it, stating it was not fit for so gallant a foe not to have a mount. Saladin retreats to Jerusalem, Richard becomes ill and Saladin sends snow and fresh fruit but will not budge from his conditons.
1192 Sept 2 - Treaty of Jaffa between Richard and Saladin on Sept 2. Moslems maintian control of Jeruslaem but pilgrims and Christians are free to visit safely, the Christians keep all the coastal cities except Ascalon and peace will reign for five years. This ends the Third Crusade. Joan and Berengaria leave Acre Sep 29, Richard leaves for home Oct 9.
1192 - Richard is captured:
Richard returns home, bad weather (or sea sickness) stops him at Corfu where the Byzantine Emperor Isaac Angelus is still angry about Cyprus. Richard disguised as a Knight Templar, sailed from Corfu with four attendants in a pirate ship, which wrecked near Aquileia, forcing Richard and his party into a dangerous land route through central Europe, over the Alps and into Germany. Richard is captured by Leopold V of Austria on his way to the territory of Henry of Saxony, his brother-in-law, Richard was captured shortly before Christmas 1192 only a few miles from the Moravian border, near Vienna, accused of the death of Conrad of Montferrat. Richard himself was dressed like a kitchen hand, but was identified because he was wearing a magnificent and costly ring no menial worker could afford. (Another tale claimed he was identified by his insistence on eating roast chicken, a great delicacy reserved for nobility.) Leopold reluctantly hands Richard over to Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor. His mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine, worked tirelessly to raise the exorbitant ransom of 150,000 marks demanded by the German emperor, which was twice the annual income for the English Crown, while John Lackland and King Philip offered the Emperor 80,000 marks to hold Richard until Michalemas 1194, but the offer was refused. Richard returned home, forgave John for taking over, then fought with Philip
1193 Mar - Saladin dies at Damascus, his sons take control over the Ayyubid Empire which includes Egypt, Palestine, Syria and some of Iraq. When they opened Saladin's treasury they found there was not enough money to pay for his funeral; he had given his money away to those in need. His tomb, located in the Umayyad mosque, is now a major tourist attraction.
1195 Apr - Alexius III, brother to Isaac II Angelus, takes the byzantine throne and has Issac blinded. He rules to 1203. Not long after, Philip of Swabia, the brother of Emperor Henry VI, married Irene Angelus, the daughter of Issac.
1196 - Henry VI, the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and son of Frederick Barbarossa plans a new crusade, but dies of malaria in Messina Sept 28. He was Holy Roman Emperor, King of Sicily, King of Burgundy, King of the Romans, and King of Italy. The two rivals for his job are Philip of Swabia and Otto of Brunswick, who is supported by Pope Innocent III.
1197 - Henry II, King of Jerusalem, accidentally falls to his death from a balcony watching a parade in Acre. Isabella holds the crown and eventually marries Amalric in 1198 who becomes the king of Jerusalem.
1198 Mar 5 - The Teutonic Knights are formed in Acre, a German crusading military fighting force with Roman Catholic religious vows. They wore white shirts with black crosses. German emperor Henry VI had given the Teutonic Knights a hospital in Barletta, Italy, and a church and cloister (of the Holy Trinity) in Palermo, Sicily. King Amalric II of Jerusalem gave them (in August) a tower in Acre, formerly belonging to the Order of St. Nicholas.
Timeline Main Page Packrat Main Page