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First Crusade: 1009 to 1144 in a nutshell:
The Byzantine Empire at Constantinople asks the Pope for help against invading Muslim Turks
Peter the Hermit leads the People's Crusade
Crusaders from France lead the Crusade
Byzantine gets Nicaea back
Crusaders take Edessa from the Greeks
Crusaders take Tripoli from the Turks
Crusaders take Antioch from the Turks, the Holy Lance is found
Crusaders take Jerusalem from the Egyptians and Godfrey becomes King of Jerusalem
The Knights of Hospitaller and the Knights of Templar are formed
Kings of Jerusalem: Godfrey Bouillon, Baldwin I, Baldwin II, Melisende, Fulk V de Anjou
Byzantine Emperors: Alexius I Comnenus, John II Comnenus
1009 - Caliph Al-Kahim bi-Amr, founder of the Druze Islam sect, orders the Holy Sepulcher (site of crucifixtion) and all Christain buildings in Jerusalem destroyed. In Europe a rumor develops that the "Prince of Babylon" ordered the destruction at the instigation of the Jews, attacks on Jewish communities begin, later leads to Jewish massacres by Crusaders marching to the Holy Land.
Druze sect, an offspring of Shiite Islam, was founded in 1017 in Cairo by a band of Islamic fanatics.
1012 - Caliph Al-Kahim bi-Amr orders the destruction of all Christain and Jewish houses of worship.
1015 - Byzantine Emperor Constantine IX Monomachos restores Holy Sepulcher (1048?)
1070 - Seljuk Turks take Jerusalem, Christians return to Europe with horror stories.
1071 Aug 26 - Battle of Manzikert, Seljuk Turks under Alp Arslan take on Byzantine Empire, capturing Emperor Romanus IV Diogenes
1074 - Pope Gregory VII called for the "knights of Christ" to go to the aid of the Byzantine Empire, largely ignored.
1080 - Cilicia (Armenia Minor) is founded, Armenian state in southeast corner of Asia Minor (Turkey) as Armenians flee homelands taken over by Seljuk Turks. Robert Guiscard and his son, Bohemond I had been in on a crusade during this time.
Greek Byzantine Emperor Alexius I Commena wrote a letter to the Pope asking for help against the Turks.
1088 - Urban II elected Pope.
1095 Apr 7 - Meteor showers in France are seen as a sign.
1095 - Nov 27: Urban II opens counsel of Clermont, Auvergne, ambassadors from Byzantine emperor Alexius I Commenus asks for help against the Muslims. His famous speech launches the first crusade.One of his letters includes, "Newly married men may not take the cross without their wives' consent." His speech ignited more anti-Semitism, the beliefs being that the Jews were responsible for Christ's crucifixion and they were near the end times when Jews were supposed to convert to Christianity.
1096 early - Peter the Hermit leads 20,000 commoners out of Cologne on the peasants march 'The People's Crusade', his vision widespread and unusual in that wars and the Crusades were notoriously waged by the wealthy. They left before harvest time and had very little food with them. Inexperienced, they quarrel, loot, split up and are easily reduced by the Moslems.
1096 Feb 11 - A red eclipse is seen by the king and his brother while discussing the Crusades, is considered to be a sign.
1096 Apr - First three armies of the Crusades meet Peter in Constantinople. They had been ambushed by Petcheneg horsemen (Turkish tribes) who were financed by Alexius I, who welcomed them on their arrival April 22 anyway. Alexius is wary because of the People's Crusade and Bohemond is an old enemy. He agrees to send his forces along thru Asia Minor to Nicaea.
1096 May - Crusaders moving through the Rhine massacre Jews in Speyer (May 3), then in Worms (May 18) and Mayence (May 27), Mainz and Cologne. Salomon Bar Simeon's account of this states the massacre was led by local Germans under the command of Count Emich de Leisinger only after Peter and the Crusaders had left Cologne. Emich was joined in Mainz by Swabians under Count Hartmana of Dillingen-Kybourg and others, Mainz massacre was from May 25 to May 29 when all Jews in the area were annihilated. Guibert of Nogent writes that Peter's followers committed vicious and unspeakable acts of the persons of Hungary. Volkmar and a priest named Gottschalk traveled through about the same time, also responsible for havoc. Gottschalk was forced to surrender at Pannonhalma. Reports of forcible conversions were heard.
1096 July 3 - Peter the Hermit's peasants clash with Byzantine forces at Nish, lose a quarter of his men but victoriously march on to Constantinople. Nish would not assist the peasants, Peter determined it was best to keep going but fighting broke out in the rear lines, Byzantines rushed out to help their men and you instantly have a war.
1096 Aug 1 - Peter arrives at Constantinople, the reputation of his troops holding the city in apprehension and are placed in camps outside the city. Anna Commena calls him "Little Peter" and his forces "Celts". Their behaviour causes the Emperor to direct them to cross the dangerous sea without delay.
1096 Aug - Eclipse of the moon is seen as a sign, one of many heavenly events during this time.
1096 Aug - Armies of knights set out, murdering masses of Jews along the way despite papal instruction not to do so.
Hughes Magnus (Hugh de Vermandois) set out first, marches through Italy, crosses the Adriatic in October, and gets shipwrecked near Durazzo, Albania. His arrogant letter to the Emperor Alexius was demanding, the Emperor's nephew, John Comnenus gathers up Hugh in November and he is held by the Byzantine Emperor Alexius until Godfrey arrives. His standard bearer is Odo de Beaugency.
Godfrey V of Bouilllon and his brother Baldwin of Boulogne lead Crusaders from the north including those from Lorraine, Walloon and Brabant. They travel through Germany, Hungary then Bulgaria, the same basic route as Peter the Hermit. He left Aug 15, 1095, marching down the Danube. In Hungary, King Coloman was apprehensive in the wake of Gottschalk, Volkmar and Count Emicho. Godfrey left Baldwin in good faith, who was returned once they crossed Hungary. Godrey hears Hughes Magnus had been taken in Constantinople and hurries to straighten that out.
Raymond St Giles, Count of Toulouse. He was the oldest and richest, and deeply religious. Raymond led the Crusaders from southern Italy, crossing northern Italy, followed the Dalmatian coast, and crossed Albania, Serbia and into Thessalonica. His third wife, Elvira, and son, Bertrand, Everard the Huntsman and William of Montpellier, Bishop and papal legate Adhemar of Le Puy and the clerk Raymond of Aguiler was in his party. He left in October 1096, and stormed Roussa perhaps because they did not believe the Greeks who said there was nothing left after the Normans passed thru two weeks prior. He leaves his army behind to arrive in Constantinople in April 21, hears his army had been battered by empire armies and had to be restrained by his knights. His army arrived April 27.
Bohemond I of Taranto, a Frankish lord from southern Italy, along with his uncle, Roger of Sicily, nephew Tancred and a brother William and a cousin Richard of the Principate. Bohemond led the Normans of Sicily where they are fighting Arabs, left Italy Oct 26, crossed the Adriatic in December, then thru Castoria. Bohemond left his army to be the first to arrive in Costantinople in April. The Emperor's daughter, Anna, always thought Bohemond wanted the empire for himself and used the Crusade to cover this fact. Bohemond's father, Robert Guiscard had previously taken Alexius cities, so Bohemond and Alexius were not exactly friends.
Robert of Normandy, Robert of Flanders and Stephen III of Blois led Flemings and and less Franks from north and central France, crossing the Alps and Italy. Fulcher of Charles wrote their travels. The Flemings went a separate route through Rome, the Franks wait after winter to cross the Adriatic, leaving land April 5. The Franks saw the Crusades as having to recapture territories the Byzantine Empire could not hold, causing friction between them. A disasterous shipwreck lost 400 lives, many survivors went home and the remainder arrived in Constantinople May 14, 1097.
1096 Sept - Peter the Hermit's peasants occupy the Xerigordon Castle or Civetot off the coast of Asia Minor previously vacated by the Turks. The Turks led by Kilij Arslan (Seljuk Turk sultan of Rum) hear Europeans have taken the castle, cut off their supply lines creating stories of drinking blood and urine to survive. After an eight day seige, the people surrender only to be killed.
1096 Oct 21 - Peter returns to Constantinople to plead for help, his followers are ambushed and massacred. The remaining Hermit's peasants are massacred by the Turks at Civeot, Anatolia. Only the children were spared to become slaves, but 3000 escape and return to Constantinople, thanks to the Emperor sending a boat. Reports of travelers include immense piles of white bones lying alongside the road. Anna Commena wrote that "those of the same bones" used these bones along with mortar to construct their fortifications.
Kilij Arslan walked away from this event thinking the Christians were a piece of cake, nothing more than a bunch of peasants, and he under estitmated the Crusaders. On the other hand, the Crusaders learned that this might not be a piece of cake after all.
1096 Dec 23 - Godfrey arrives at Constantinople, not a comfy situation. Alexius feels the Crusaders are in his service, and should return all his lands they recover, and there is little trust between Franks and Greeks. Godfrey is greeted by the Emperor Alexius I who also commanded the Patzinaks to watch over them and attack them at any oppotunity. Godfrey's brother, Baldwin hears of this, being warned by mysterious Franks, attacks the Patzinaks and brings the captives to Godfrey. The Emperor is enraged, Godfrey moves his camp outside the walls until peace is made with Alexius after attacks and five days. The Emperor urges Godfrey to move down to the Strait, buying rights are denied, granted, denied. Godrey moves back, back and forth.
1097 Apr 10: Bohemond reaches Constantinople, crosses the Bosphorus on the 26th
1097 Apr 27 - Raymond reaches Constantinople. The Crusaders realize they need Alexius to cross Anatolia, Alexius limits their activities within the city, Crusaders don't all have monies for supplies and feel Alexius should provide everything, Tancred even took a swing at the Emperor's son, Alexius and the Crusaders play games back and forth until it was time to move on.
1097 May 28 - Robert of Normandy and Stephen of Blois reaches Constantinople.
The Crusaders are now 50,000 knights and 500,000 footmen strong. The Emperor, worried about getting back his lands, asks the Crusaders to swear allegiance to him, most are relectant but do swear, Raymond refused although he did offer his friendship to Alexius against Bohemond, their mutual enemy.
1097 June - The Crusaders gather to try and take Nicaea, Kilij Arslan's capital, with a lake front for supplies that cannot be blockaded. Alexius secretly accepts Nicaea's surrender, fearing the Crusaders will ravage the city nor return it to his empire. Arslan's wife and children are released, much to the anger of the crusaders who wanted to use them for leverage.
1097 June 19 - Crusaders wake to Byzantine flags on the ramparts. Crusaders are forbidden to enter or loot the city, creating more friction between Crusaders and the Empire.
1097 June 26 - Crusaders and Byzantines under Taticius left Nicaea to cross Asia Minor, divided into two groups: the Normans led by Bohemond, Robert, Taticius followed by Godfrey, Baldwin, Raymond, Blois and Hughes and the southern Frenchmen.
1097 July 1: The First Battle Dorylaeum, and Bohemond, the first victory against the Turks on their territory. Bohemond (8,000) is surrounded by Kilij Arslan (30,000), Godfrey breaks thru Turkish lines to help, then Raymond's knights and finally Adhemar of Le Puy's knights show up and win the day. They gather Kilij Arslan's immense treasury spent the next three months crossing Anatolia in the heat where horses and pack animals died like flies.
1097 Sept 14- After passing through the Cilician Gates, a narrow gorge in southeast Turkey, Tancred left the army Sept 10 for other routes, believing any path advised by the Greeks would be unsafe. Baldwin follows him, they arrive in Cilician Caesarea at the end of September and move on to Marash in early October. Tarsus, Adana, Misis and Iskenderun are taken along the way. The weather was foul, Baldwin's wife died during this passage, but at least the locals were Armenians and were friendly to the Crusaders. Tancred goes to Tarsus, takes the town Sept 21, Baldwin catches up with his larger army and wants the city, Tancred has to conceed, they quarrel and fight down the road but make up, agreeing neither will set up a territory for themselves in Cilicia, proving some of the Crusaders had only vested interests in their travels to the east.
1097 Oct 17 - Baldwin sets off on his own, headed for Armenian territory near the Euphrates, capturing Turbessel, receiving Greek Orthodox ruler King Thoros's plea for help.
Starvation hits the Crusaders in Saracen lands, they discover sugar cane, recup at Caesarea of Cappadocea where they find the Armenians helpful and friendly, many marriages will take place between Crusaders and Armenians.
1097 Fall - A Comet shower is seen.
1097 Oct 20 - Crusaders arrive at Antioch in northern Syria. The Turkish commander was Turk Yaghi-Siyan, supposedly the ally of Seljuk Turk Ridwan of Aleppo but who openly fought against him with Kerbogha of Mosul, a Turkish or Arab noble, possibly a Mameluke. Yaghi-Siyan and his small forces wait for help from Aleppo, exiles Greek and Armenian Christians, trusting only the Scottish Jacobites as they hated both the Greeks and the Armenians. The Crusaders wait for Tancred through the winter. The Crusaders hear Antioch has been abandoned, so Raymond proceeds ahead, greatly offending Bohemond. The castle is still occupied, so Raymond goes back to Plan A. Only 700 to 1000 horses were still alive.
1097 Oct 21 - Tancred rejoins the main army after passing through Kayseri, Comana, Goksun and Marash. Fulcher of Charles joins Baldwin of Boulogne's unit.
December includes a severe earthquake on the 30th, a few sorties where one of the knights actually entered the castle but retreated in confusion, Turkish armies from Damascus are coming to assist but are turned back by Robert and Bohemond. Bishop Adhemar expels all the women, sending them to their own camp to prevent contining problems with adultry and mayhem. January brings the peak of starvation and a severe horse shortage. One story is about a skirmish where the knights leave the battle to capture a riderless horse. Peter arrives with Tancred but goes home, more Turks are turned back to Aleppo. Peter travels over 340 miles in six months looking for food for the men.
1098 Jan - Bohemond threatened to leave as he did not have the funds to pay his men as the others did, and he could not bear to wacth his knights or their steeds die of starvation. Ramond St Giles was one of the richest men throughout the crusades.
1098 Jan 20 - Peter the Hermit and William the Carpenter try to flee and are brought back in disgrace. The leaders take a vow to never desert.
1098 Feb 20 - Baldwin reaches Edessa with only 8 knights Feb 6. Thoros might have been willing or coherced, but Thoros adopted Baldwin, making him the heir. Thoros was assassinated March 9, 1098. Before he could flee after Baldwin takes over, or because the people want Baldwin installed, a mob storms the palace, Thoros's men nor Baldwin will defend him, he flees out a window where the mob literally takes him apart. Baldwin became the new ruler, creating the the first of the crusader states, the County of Edessa.
1098 Mar - Supplies and Italians show up. The horse count is down to 100 to 200 by June. The seige castle La Mahomerie is constructed, Sttephen of Blois is made commander-in-chief.
1098 June 1/2 - Stephen of Blois leaves with his French army after hearing Kerboga is on his way with 75,000 troops. Large scale desertion takes place about this time. A few hours later, Bohemond received word from Firuz, a captain of the guard in Antioch and secretly a traitor, that he would leave a wall unguarded, the Crusaders enter the city at the Gate of St. George. The massacre begins, ending on the third of June. The town was covered in corpses, you couldn't walk without stepping on them. Yaghi-Sian flees, (legend says his head was later paraded in front of the Turks) but his son hold up in the citadel, eventually surrendering only to Bohemond. The crusaders are 40,000 strong, who ate leaves, thistles and leather to survive.
1098 Jun 5 - Kerbogha's troops arrive and surround the Crusaders and the city.
Meanwhile, Alexius is on the way to make sure Antioch is returned to him. He meets Stephen at Akshehir, who reportedly was returning to Antioch and saw the hopelessness and turned home again. Alexius heads home, accompanied by many crusaders who die on the way back to Constantinople. Stephen is branded a coward.
1098 Jun 10 - Peter Bartholomew comes to Raymond and speaks of a vision of St Andrew where the Holy Lancethe spear that pierced Christ's side as he hung on the Crosslay buried in St. Peter's Cathedral in Antioch. Panic spread at the presence of the Turks to the point where Bohemond and Adhemar had the gates to the city closed.
1098 Jun 14 - A meteor crosses the sky, appearing to have landed in the Turkish camps, the Crusaders take it was a good sign and start digging in the Cathedral. Raymond gives up, Peter jumps into the hole and finds it, Raymond of Aguilers reported he touched the iron while it was still embedded in the ground. June 28 the Crusaders leave the walls and attack the Turks, completely driving them away and finally replenishing their food supplies.
The Crusaders argue about who rules Antioch. They had all agreed who ever broke thru the walls first won, Yaghi's son's surrender qualifies Bohemond as victor. Raymond wants it returned to Alexius, the others argue that Alexius deserted them.
1098 Aug - Starvation and disease kills many including Adhemar of Le Puy on the first. Discipline breaks down completely. Hughes Magnus returned home as well.
1098 - The "antipope" Guibert (Clement III) excommunicated along with Emperor Henry IV takes the Vatican, Urban II takes refuge in Lucca.
1098 Nov 23- Bored and hungry Crusaders force Raymond and Robert of Flanders to take them to the Arab town of Ma'arrat al-Numan in Syria which fell Dec 12. Raymond made his base here, but the walls were destroyed by angry crusaders on Jan 5. The first known incident of cannibalism by the Crusaders is reported.
1099 Jan 13 - Raymond finally leads the greatly reduced number of Crusaders out of Ma'arrat al-Numan, leaving Antioch to Bohemond. Robert of Normandy and Tancred went with him. Godfrey and Robert of Flanders followed from Antioch at the end of February, not wanting to admit they considered Raymond their leader. Tancred had left Bohemond to join Raymond after a salary dispute.
1099 Feb 14 - The Crusaders lay seige to Arqah, about fifteen miles from Tripoli.
1099 Mar - Peter the Hermit is made the official leader and caretaker of the poor.
1099 April 5 - Peter comes up with another St Andrew vision, the city must be stormed at once. The knights insist Peter and the lance are fakes, a trial by fire is set for April 8. Peter holds the lance, walks thru the fire, comes out terribly burnt and dies twelve days later. Raymond keeps the lance, but the troops are divided in their beliefs. May 13 they move on, giving up on Arqah.
The Crusaders pass Tripoli, Beruit, Type and Jaffa peacefully as the Moslems open their markets to the Crusaders who arrive at Ramleh June 3. The Bethlehem army meets them there, asks for help against the Turks, Tancred goes along and returns the same day.
1098 Jun 6 - Godfrey sends Tancred to take Bethelehem.
1099 June 7: Crusaders arrive at Jerusalem, which is controlled by the Egyptian Fatimid caliph Iftikhar-ad-Daula for the last year, armed with Arab and Turkish soldiers. The caliph had expelled all the Christians and poisoned all water outside the walls, and is patiently waiting for reinforcements. The caliph offers safety for Christian pilgrims, Crusaders refuse anything short of full control of Jerusalem. Other players: Raymond of Aguilers
Robert of Flanders and Tancred head off to Samaria to cut timber for many weeks, hearing the backup Egyptian army is on the move in July, giving them only another month.
Peter Desiderius claimed to have had a divine vision (in the shape of recently departed Bishop Adhemanr) instructing the crusaders to fast and then march in a barefoot procession around the city walls, after which the city would fall in nine days. July 8, the Crusaders comply, on July 15 the seige is completed. The barefoot march was conducted beneath jeering Egyptians, followed by a sermon on the Mount of Olives by Peter the Hermit. July 11th eclipse of the moon?
1099 July 15 - Crusaders breach the walls of Jerusalem: Casualities were reported at 100,000
Godfrey broke in first at St Stephens gate on the north wall where the first martyr Stephen was stoned in Christ's name. Two Flemish knights, Letold and Gilbert of Tournai, were first across, followed closely by Godfrey and then Tancred.
Raymond was at Jaffee gate on the south wall and took the Tower of David nest to the Jaffa Gate.
Robert was on south wall. St Stephen side?
Robert, Duke of Normandy, stationed his forces along the northern wall at the Gate of Flowers, or Herod's Gate. Robert of Flanders was to his right at the Gate of the Column, also known as St. Stephen's or the Damascus Gate. Godfrey of Lorraine took position at the northwest angle of the city as far as the Jaffa Gate, with Raymond of Toulouse to his south. Tancred later joined Godfrey.
1099 July 16 - Crusaders massacred almost every person within the city, Muslims, Jews, and eastern Christians. Crusaders corral hundreds of Jews into a synagogue and set afire. Tancred claimed the Temple quarter for himself protection to some Muslims to no avail. Those who reported the event were as uncontrite as the victors.
1099 July 17 - Leaders gather to decide who controls the city. Raymond refuses, saying only Christ should be King in Jerusalem. Godfrey is elected to rule on the 22nd. He refuses a gold crown and takes the title "Advocate of the Holy seplucher." Raymond is angry enough to leave and never return. Chaplain Arnulf Malecorne was chosen as Patriarch of Jerusalem, who banned all rites except Latin and alienated the Christians.
1099 July 22 - Egyptians reinforcements appear, the Franks have already started home. Godfrey sends a messenger for their return.
1099 July 29 - Pope Urban II dies, never learning the crusades were a success.
1099 Aug 12/17 - Crusaders successfully fight off Fatimid Egyptian army of 50,000 (outnumbering Crusaders five to one) sent by al-Afdal, vizier of Egypt, in the Battle of Ascalon, the last battle of the first Crusade.
300 knights remain in Jerusalem.
1100 July 18 - Godfrey dies, his brother Baldwin of Boulogne, Count of Edessa, takes over. Baldwin of Bourg, the ambassador between Antioch and Edessa, becomes the Count of Edessa in Frankish Syria. Bohemond controls Antioch.
1100 - Bohemond is taken captive by Danishmends of Sivas, Tancred becomes regent of Antioch.
1100 Dec 25 - Baldwin I crowned King of Jerusalem in Bethlehem, but has limited control on the four feudal sections of Jerusalem.
1101 - More Crusaders set out, including Stephen of Blois and Hughes Magnus, who both went home before the taking of Jerusalem. Hugh VI de Lusignan went as well, along with his step brothers, Berenguer Ramon II and Ramon II Berenger, Counts of Barcelona. Most of these were annilated in Asia Minor, only a few reached Jerusalem.
1101 Aug - Battle of Heraclia, Turkish Kilij Arslan I halt the advance of Crusaders from Europe coming to reinforce the new Syrian Crusader states. His wife, Agnes pressures Stephen of Blois into going, perhaps to try and reverse his reputation from Antioch. Raymond of Toulouse is defeated at Heraclea in Anatolia, but escapes to Constantinople. Ida, Countess of Cham, wife of HRE Leopald II, was captured or killed, later rumored to have survived and the mother of Zengi.
1101 - Baldwin II marries Morphia, daughter of Armenian Gabriel of Melitene in 1101: they have four daughters, Melisende, Alice, Hodierna, and Ioveta. Morphia died Oct 1, 1126 or 1127.
1101 Sept 7 - First Battle of Ramla, Baldwin vs the Fatimids. Crusaders are victorious, Stephen of Blois is killed, Fulcher of Chartres accounts the battle.
1101 - Baldwin of Bourg finally helps ransom Bohemund.
1102 - Baldwin battles Egyptians at Ascalon. Raymond of Toulouse leaves Constantinople for Antioch, is captured by Tancred but released after he promises not to attempt any conquests in the country between Antioch and Acre. He immediately broke his promise, captured Tortosa, and began to build a castle on the Mons Peregrinus ("Pilgrim's Mountain") which would help in his siege of Tripoli. He was aided by Alexius I who wants peace in Tripoli.
1102 - Raymond of Toulouse tries to take Tripoli from the Banu Ammar Emirs, vassals of the Egyptian Fatimid caliphs.
1102 May - Second Battle of Ramla, Baldwin is outflanked and defeated. Baldwin flees to Jaffa, German and English crusaders arrive by ship at Jaffa, allowing Baldwin to fight off Muslims invading the city and push the Egyptians back to Ascalon.
1104 - Seljuk Turks invaded Edessa at the Battle of Harran. The battle was disastrous, Count Baldwin was captured, Tancred became regent of Edessa. Tancred and Bohemund preferred to ransom their own prisoners rather than an exchange for Baldwin, and the count remained in captivity in Mosul until 1108, when he was ransomed for 60 000 dinars by Joscelin of Courtenay. Tancred refused to restore Edessa to Baldwin, but with the support of the Armenians, Byzantines, and even the Seljuks, Tancred was forced to back down. In 1109, after reconciling with Tancred, the two participated in the capture of Tripoli.
Bohemond returns to Italy and France to raise money.
1105 - Raymond IV of Toulouse dies, leaving the fight for Tripoli to his infant son Alfonso-Jordan with is nephew or cousin, William-Jordan of Cerdagne as regent. Raymond's bastard son by a cousin, Bertrand, had control of Toulouse.
William-Jordan is the son of William IV of Toulouse (son of Almodis de la Marche) and his half-sister Adelaide (both children of Pons III of Toulouse), and the nephew of Raymond IV of Toulouse.
1105 Aug - Third battle of Ramleh, Baldwin is outflanked yet Egyptian Fatimids and Muslin Tughtugins of Damascus forces are defeated.
1107 - Moroccan Almoravid ruler Yoseph Ibn Tashfin orders all Moroccan Jews to convert or leave.
1107 - Bohemond returns from Europe to find Alexius attacking Antioch. Bohemond besieges Dyrrhachium, breaking his 1097 oath to Alexius, but fails due to the plague.
1108 - Anesau, the precentor of the church of the Holy Sepulcher sends a piece of the Holy Cross to the canons at Notre Dame with his servant Anselm.
1108 - Treaty of Devol - Bohemond I and Alexius I argue about who broke the 1097 oath first, but agree to the treaty: Bohemond would be a vassal for Alexius and pay dues for the service, he would receive fiefs that weren't currently available (but Bohemond could conquer), several cities were returned to Alexius, and Alexius could assign his own Greek Patriarch. The treaty leaves Bohemond broken who returns to Europe, leaving Tancred as Prince of Antioch.
1109 - Crusaders takes Sumerian Tiberia under Arab rule, and make it the capital of Galilee.
1109 Jul 12- Reconciled Baldwin and Tancred take Tripoli with William-Jordon and Bertrand who takes over when William dies from an arrow in the seige.
1110 May - Franks defeat Muslims in Beruit.
1112 - Tancred, Prince of Antioch dies, leaving Antioch to cousin Roger of Salerno.
1113 Feb - Brother Gerard, leader of the Benedictine monks organizes the Order of the Knights of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem (aka Knights Hospitaller) as a military force to protect Christian pilgrims. Their patron saint is John the Baptist. The Pope Paschal II recognizes the Knights of Hospitaller as a separate and independent monastic order to provide safety to the Crusaders and pilgrims.
1113 - Baldwin of Bourg exiled Joscelin from Edessa and removed him from Turbessel (why?)
1115 Feb - Peter the Hermit dies.
1118 - After the Battle of Pharmia, Baldwin I is walking near the Nile and suddenly becomes ill, taken by litter back to Jerusalem but dies on the way at Laris (el-Arish) and buried on Golgotha next to Godfrey. The crown was offered to the king's elder brother Eustace III who was in France and did not want the job, and Joscelin of Courtnay insisted that the crown pass to Baldwin of Bourcq.
1118 Apr 14 - Baldwin of Bourg is crowned king as Baldwin II on Easter Sunday, his vassal Joscelin of Courtnay is now Count of Edessa.
1118 Aug 15 - Emperor Alexius I dies, leaving his son John II Commenus in charge. Daughter Anna Commena ends up in a nunnery.
1118/9 - The monastic Order of the Knights of Templar is formed by Hughes de Payens in Jersualem, their name from their base being at the site of Solomon's Temple. There were nine original knights: Hughes de Payens, Godfrey de St. Omar, Roval, Godfrey Bisol, Payens de Montidiel, Archembald de St. Amand, Andrew de Montbarry, and Gundemar, the ninth knight is guessed to be Hugo of Champagne.
1119 - Turk Emir Ilghazi invaded Antioch, Roger of Salerno with his 700 knights and 3000 soldiers were killed in "unheard of refinements of cruelty". Baldwin's troops did not make it in time, nor would Roger wait for him.
1120 - Baldwin called the Council of Nablus in 1120, where he probably established the first written laws for the kingdom.
1122 - Joscelin's Armenian wife, Beatrice (daughter of Constantine I of Armenia and the mother of Joscelin II) dies. Joscelin then marries Maria of Salerno, sister of Roger of Salerno, Prince of Antioch.
1122 - Joscelin is captured by the Ortoqids while patrolling the borders of Edessa, imprisoned in the citadel at Kharpurt in Kurdistan (Mespotamia?).
1123 - Baldwin II was out hawking when he was captured by Turkish Emir Balak, also imprisoned at Kharpurt. Constable Eustace Grenier from Flanders acted as regent in Jerusalem, and defeated an Egyptian invasion hoping to take advantage of the king's absence. Baldwin II and Joscelin were rescued by Armenians in Kharpurt. Great story.
1124 July - Venetians help the Crusaders by blockading the port of Tyre to submission. Most of the Mediterranean Sea coastline is controlled by Crusaders and the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem.
1125 - Pope Callistus II launches a crusade against Spanish and eastern regions held by Muslims.
1125 - Baldwin II met the Seljuks at the Battle of Azaz, the Crusaders were victorious but Joscelin II was captured then ransomed by Baldwin II.
1127 - Fulk V was returning to Anjou when Baldwin IIproposed he marry Baldwin II's daughter Melisende, heir to the crown. Fulk accepted only to be king instead of just a consort. He left Anjou to his son Geoffrey V and returned to Jerusalem and married Melisende June 2. Baldwin II safe guarded Melisende's position by making her sole guardian of their son, Baldwin III in 1130.
1128 - Aleppo and Mosul were united under Seljuk Imad ad-Din Zengi, governor of Aleppo under Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah I.
1129 - Baldwin, his new son-in-law Fulk V and the Templars try to take Damascus under Turkish Burid Dynasty rule before Zengi does, but do not succeed.
1131 Aug 21- Baldwin II became ill and died, buried in the Church of the Holy Seplucher, leaving the kingdom to Melisende.
1131 Sep 14 - Baldwin's daughter, Melisende and her husband, Fulk V are crowned king and queen of Jerusalem.
1131 - Joscelin I gravely injured during the siege of a small castle north-east of Aleppo and dies.
1132 - Alice, sister to Melisende, was exiled from Antioch by her father, had taken control of Antioch after his death. She allied with Pons of Tripoli and Joscelin II of Edessa to prevent Fulk from marching north, they fought and make peace, she is exiled, again.
1138 - Salah-al-Din Yusuf ib-Ayyub (Saladin) is born, a Moslim Kurd with a reputation for brutality yet honesty.
1139 - Damascus Turks ally with King Fulk against Zengi.
1142 - The Hopitallers are given a castle in Tripoli, Krak des Chevaliers.
1143 Apr 8 - Emperor John II Commenus is infected by a poisoned arrow, assigns his son Manuel I to the empire and dies. Manuel rules to 1180.
1143 - While vacationing in Acre, Fulk was killed, falling off his horse, the saddle crushing his head, buried Church of the Holy Sepulcher. Baldwin III was only 13 years old. This left Joscelin II without any powerful allies.