Castles     Stories (or more info)
Abergavenny Castle William de Braose   The Battle of Hastings
Acre Castle     William de Warrenne
Arundel     Roger d' Montgomery
Ashby de la Zouch Castle   Alan La Zouche   The White Ship
Beaudesert Castle    
Berkhamstead   Robert de Mortain
Bolingbroke Blanche of Lancaster died of the plague
Brienne Castle
Bramber Castle William de Braose   Abergavenny Massacre
Caernarfon Castle Edward II    
Caerphilly Castle Lady Eleanor de Clare    
Carisbrooke   William FitzOsbern   Edward II & Isabella
Castle Rising   William d' Aubigney
Chepstow Castle   William Marshall   Pillar of Eliseg
Clifford Castle   William FitzOsbern
Conisbrough Castle   Hamelin Plantagenet
Dangueul Castle
Farleigh Castle  
Fontenai Castle   Robert Marmion
Goodrich Castle     Gilbert FitzRichard de Clare
Hedingham Castle     Aubrey II de Vere
Ivry Castle     Roger de Beaumont
Kenilworth Castle
Kidwelly Castle Wales Gwenllian Gruffydd beheaded The Great Revolt of 1136
Lewes Castle     William de Warrenne
Monmouth Castle Wales Gilbert de Clare
Pain's Castle   Mathilda de Saint Valery
Pembroke Castle William Marshall Roger d' Montgomery
Pevensey Castle   Robert de Mortain
Tamsworth Castle    Robert Marmion
Tong Castle   Roger d' Montgomery
Warwickshire Castle  

Abergavenny Castle. Monmouthsire, South Wales

Built by William de Braose, the site of the 1175 Abergavenny Massacre

William Camden, the 16th-century antiquary, said that Abergavenny Castle "has been oftner stain'd with the infamy of treachery, than any other castle in Wales."

Acre Castle, Swaffham, Norfolk, Off the A1065, 4 miles north of Swaffham

An early Norman castle, built around 1170-80 by  William de Warrenne , Earl of Surrey and Chief Justiciar to William the Conqueror. Large earth banks surround a bailey, and at one end is a motte with the remains of a keep. This was originally de Warenne’s hall, which was surrounded by a simple ringwork bank. Some time around 1140, during the civil war of the reign of King Stephen, a motte was raised around the reinforced walls of the hall which became the base for a much stronger, although probably never finished, keep. When King Henry II came to the throne the keep was demolished, along with many other unlicensed fortifications that had sprung up across the country during the conflict.

Note: the castle, if given to the Warrene by William the Conqueror, was built long before 1170.

The castle remained in use until the death of the last Warenne earl in 1347. The de Warennes founded a town alongside the castle, surrounded by a defensive earth bank and ditch. The main entrance was a stone gatehouse, now known as the Bailey Gate, which still stands in the village

Webshots of Acre Castle

Arundel Castle, Sussex

Built by Roger de Montgomery about 1068, added to by Henry II, owned by the de Albini family, and the Howards, and the Duke of Norfolk, who still resides there today.

Webshots of Arundel Castle

Ashby de la Zouch Castle

From 1100's, founded by Alain de Parrhoet (de la Zouche) Alan La Zouche and became a market town.

1474  - Lord William Hastings, the favorite counsellor of Edward IV was granted the castle. He updated the castle, adding a kitchen, solar block, four storey keep, seven story extension, a chapel and surrounding wall. An underground passage goes from the basement to the kitchen. The castle and town became the seat of the Hastings family.

During the civil war it was used as a Royalist stronghold.

1644 - Taken by Parlimentary forces, Cromwell partially destroyed the castle

1820 - The castle is the setting for the tournament where Robin Hood gained his fame in Walter Scott's novel "Ivanhoe."

Webshots of Ashby La Zouche Castle

Beaudesert Castle, Warwickshire, at the northern edge of the village of Henley-on-Arden on the A3400

The earthworks, albeit quite clear ones, are all that remain of this former Norman Motte and Bailey castle in Henley-in-Arden, not far from Stratford in Warwickshire.

Built in the earliest days after the Norman conquest, and possibly on the site of an Ancient British fort, the original castle would, like most of the early Motte and Baileys, have been made mainly of wood, being gradually converted to stone as time went by, starting with the all-important defensive curtain wall.

Henry de Newburgh, Earl of Warwick, gave the land to his great-nephew, Thurstan de Montfort, who built a castle on the lands that he called Beaudesert, or beautiful wasteland, presumably in reference to what must have been the very depths of the dark and sinister Forest of Arden. A charter for a market alongside the castle was obtained from the Empress Maud in 1140.

It was probably his grandson Peter de Montford who walled the inner bailey in stone. In April 1262, when he began to take sides with the Barons, the King gave orders to prevent the fortification of the castle. Peter was killed in 1265, and the town of Henley was burnt, probably as retribution for its Lord's stand against the King. It is said that the castle was also partly destroyed, but if so it was soon rebuilt, and Peter's son was restored to his inheritance. When that Peter's grandson Peter died in 1369, the castle reverted to Thomas, Earl of Warwick, which is probably when it began to decline: after all, with the massive and more important Warwick Castle, the Earls were unlikely to pay much attention to a small, and probably half-wooden keep.

Lord Bergavenny held the castle from 1376 to 1410 followed by the Boteillers of Sudeley until it was sold to Edward IV in 1477. Whether or not it was retained by the Earls of Warwick and these nobles held it on reversion is not known, but it seems likely that they were only tenants.

Henry de Montfort and following generations (to Elizabeth) were born here.

1216: Peter de Montfort rebuilt the inner bailey of Beaudesert Castle in stone, of which nothing remains.

Berkhamstead, Hertfordshire

The castle was built in the late 11th century for Robert de Mortain, William the Conqueror's half brother. Between 1155-65, Thomas a Becket, Henry II's chancellor, was resident at the castle. Further improvements were made by King John, who added wing walls up the south side of the motte, and round towers along the bailey curtain wall. These defences were put to the test in 1216 when the castle was besieged by Prince Louis of France, as part of an attempt to seize the English Throne. The castle finally fell after a two week barrage from giant catapults called mangonels. The castle became disused from 1495. The outer gate or barbican was lost in 1838 when the London and Birmingham Railway sliced off the south-western edge of the site.

Webshots of Berkhamstead Castle

Bramber Castle, West Sussex

Built by William de Braose 1075 as a chapel, only a wall still stands

Castle Rising, King's Lynn, Norfolk, 4 miles north east of Kings Lynn, off A149

Construction of the magnificent Norman keep at Castle Rising began around 1140. It was built for William d' Aubigney , who had recently acquired great wealth and power through his marriage to Adeliza of Louvain, the widow of King Henry I. The castle features some ornate decoration and was built at great expense using imported stone. The large hall keep had most of its principle rooms, including the great hall, on the first floor. The ground floor was primarily used for storage. A forebuilding containing an impressive staircase leading to a first floor entrance vestibule provided access to the great hall. A large arch with Romanesque decoration served as a grand entrance to the hall. This arch was blocked up and a fireplace installed during the 16th century, and the entrance to the hall is now through a side door and passage.

The D’Albini line failed in 1243 and Castle Rising passed to the Montalt family. They held the castle until 1331 when Edward III granted it to his mother, Queen Isabella. Despite being implicated in the death of her husband, King Edward II, she was not held prisoner and lived a life of considerable luxury. The ruins of a range of buildings to the south of the keep are all that remain of new lodgings she had built for herself. When she died in 1358 the castle passed to Edward the Black Prince. He appears to have been the last owner to spend considerable sums of money on the maintenance of the castle and following his death it gradually fell into decline. In 1544 King Henry VIII granted the castle to the Howard (Dukes of Norfolk) family who have retained it to this day.

Chepstow Castle, River Wye,  Monmouthshire, Wales

Built by William Fitz Osbern in 1067 after the Battle of Hastings. One of his most magnificent castles, one of the oldest surviving castles of its type. Chepstow (Welsh: Cas-gwent) is a border town straddling the Monmouthshire—Gloucestershire border, situated at the confluence of the River Wye and River Severn on the Severn's west bank. Chepstow proper is on the west bank of the Wye, within Wales; the English part on the eastern bank consists of Tutshill and Sedbury.

Chepstow Castle is the oldest surviving stone fortification in Britain. After the Norman Invasion Chepstow was identified as an ideal site for a castle, as it not only controlled a crossing point on the River Wye, but also because the steep limestone gorge and castle dell afforded an excellent defensive location. William the Conqueror ordered its construction in 1067, and, according to the Domesday Book, it was designed by the master castle builder of the time, William fitzOsbern. A town grew up beside the castle, the Priory church, and the port, and in 1294 Chepstow was given the right to hold a weekly market and annual fair. The town wall, locally known as the Port Wall, was built about this time, and mostly still stands.

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Clifford Castle, Herefordshire, York, England

Originally constructed of wood in 1070; the Tower was burned down in 1190. The stone structure that remains today was built in the 14th century and was the main Keep of York's Castle. The Tower is all that remains of the castle today.

Clifford castle stands on an eastward flowing section of the River Wye near to the current boundary between England and Wales. The castle was founded by Earl William Fitz Osbern in the period between his being made earl of Hereford soon after Christmas 1066 and his death at the battle of Cassel in Flanders on 22 February 1071. After Earl William's death, his son, Earl Roger, held the castle for four years until his revolt in 1075. Then, on Roger’s imprisonment, the castle passed to his father's brother-in-law, Ralph Tosny (d.1102), and he and his descendants held the castle until the wars of Stephen and Matilda between 1138 and 1154. During the years of Tosny lordship the castle was transformed into a great stone structure of which there are some remains today. The caput of the family was the castle of Conches in Normandy.

With the wars of Stephen and Matilda the Tosny's hold on Clifford castle weakened. Roger Tosny's steward, Walter fitz Richard, had for a long time been calling himself Walter Clifford and had married Isabel Tosny, Roger's sister. In 1144 he still acknowledged Roger as his overlord of Clifford, but by the end of the war he had made himself de facto lord of Clifford and refused to return castle and lordship to their rightful owners. During the reign of King Henry II, Walter Clifford cleverly introduced his daughter, renowned as the Fair Rosamund for her beauty, to Henry. Soon the two became lovers and Walter's powerful daughter ensured that he never lost control of Clifford to its rightful owners.

In 1190 As the Jews came under attack, they retreated to the safety of the Tower for protection. When rioters surrounded the Keep, the Jews became trapped and unable to defend themselves. Rather then face the rioters; many committed mass suicide in the Tower. Eventually the Tower was set ablaze which ended the lives of the remaining Jews still holding out inside.

In 1233 Walter Clifford’s grandson, another Walter Clifford, rebelled against King Henry III rather than return the castle to the Tosnys. This led to the castle’s only known siege by Henry III. After just a few days the castle surrendered to the king under the threat of death. Walter himself had retreated into Wales and attempted to persuade his father-in-law, Prince Llywelyn Fawr, to join him in rebellion. On failing to achieve this aim Walter met the king at Shrewsbury and made his peace. Within a month Walter was back in the Welsh Marches leading a royal army against Prince Llywelyn who had finally thrown his power behind the rebels

In 1271 Walter’s widowed daughter and heiress Matilda was kidnapped from her home by the young John Giffard of Brimpsfield. In terror she managed to get a letter to the king telling of her abduction and rape. Once more Henry III took to the field, this time for the honour of the baroness of Clifford. However before he had proceeded far he received another letter from Matilda saying everything was alright now and she had married her abductor! The marriage was subsequently blessed by the birth of two daughters before Matilda’s death in 1284. By 1311 the castle had passed into the hands of the Mortimers and from that time forth was left to gently decay as just one more castle in the hands of that powerful family.

Webshot pictures of Clifford Tower

Conisbrough Castle, Doncaster, South Yorkshire, Off the A630, 5 miles west of Doncaster

Conisbrough Castle was built around 1180 by Hamelin Plantagenet , illegitimate half-brother of Henry II. The castle has one of the finest Keeps in England. The curtain walls were built around the Keep in the early 1200s by William III de Warrenne, the first Earl Warenne. Hamelin inherited the title and estates through his marriage to Isabel Warren, daughter of the third Earl Warenne. Conisbrough does not have much history to it other then an occasional siege through the years. The Keep survived destruction during the English Civil war because part of the curtain wall had already collapsed so parliamentarians viewed it as indefensible and left it in tact.

Considered haunted by a gray monk, White Lady, footsteps and strange lights in the chapel

Farleigh Castle, Bath, Somerset, On the A366, 4 miles west of Trowbridge

Farleigh Hungerford Castle began life as a manor house built by the Montfort family. In 1369-70 it was sold to Sir Thomas Hungerford, first Speaker of the House of Commons. He converted the property into a square castle with large corner towers, surrounded by a moat. In 1383 he was pardoned for having done this without a royal licence. In the early 15th century, his son, Sir Walter Hungerford, enlarged the castle by adding the outer court that enclosed the parish church, which he used as his chapel; it is thought that he built the present parish church nearby to replace it.

The castle was home to the Hungerfords for 200 years, but had fallen into ruin by the end of the 17th century. Little remains of the main castle building apart from some substantial ruined towers, but the gatehouse and curtain wall that protected the outer courtyard are largely intact and the old parish church it enclosed is well preserved and features some medieval wall paintings and one of the most important collections of lead coffins in the country.

Fontenai Castle  Robert Marmion
Goodrich Castle, Herefordshire, 22 miles west of Gloucester, on the A40.

Goodrich Castle is a Norman earth and timber ringwork fortress, founded by Godric of Mappestone. In the 12th century, Gilbert FitzRichard de Clare founded the stone castle, when adding a square three storey Norman keep. In 1144 William FitzOsbern seized the castle during the anarchy of the reign of Stephen. In 1204 the castle was given to William Marshall, Earl of Pembroke. In the 13th century, the keep was encased by a curtain wall, which is flanked by an asymmetrical twin-towered gatehouse and three massive cylindrical angle towers, all with spur buttresses. The castles approach, is defended by a substantial 14th century D-shaped barbican, an impressive rock-cut ditch and a small concentric outer bailey, with the foundations of the stables and a lower curtain wall, flanked by two angle turrets.

Hedingham Castle, Essex, Off the A604, 7 miles south east of Sudbury.

The Norman Keep at Hedingham castle is one of the finest in the country. It was built around 1140 for Aubrey II de Vere, and was probably designed by William de Corbeuil, Archbishop of Canterbury. The castle was owned by the de Vere's, Earls of Oxford, until the 17th century. This wealthy and important family created an impressive castle at Hedingham, although it was successfully besieged twice in the early 13th century, first by King John in 1216 and then by the Dauphin of France in 1217. Many improvements were made to the castle during the Tudor period and King Henry VII and Queen Elizabeth I were entertained at Hedingham. But none of these buildings now stand, and the Norman keep is all that remains of the castle, standing alone in the grounds of a mansion house built in the early 18th century.

Kidwelly Castle, Kidwelly, Carmarthenshire, Wales

Norman Castle, quite intact. Used for Monty Python and the Holy Grail. Gwenllian Gruffydd led a revolt against the Normans while her husband was fighting elsewhere. Gwenllian was captured and beheaded along with two of her sons, Morgan and Maelgwyn. A field north of the town called "Field of Gwenllian" with a spring is said to be where she died.

Kenilworth Castle, Warwickshire, off Castle Lane, 10 miles south-west of Coventry

The area was mentioned in the Domesday books, castle built by Geoffrey de Clinton in the 1100's. 1173: When King Henry I dies, the dispute between Stephen and Matilda over the succession to the crown leads to nearly twenty years of civil war. Henry II, Matilda’s son, is anxious to prevent this from happening again so crowns his own son during his lifetime. The ‘Young King’ is not happy having the status without the power and rebels against his father. Henry II takes (amongst others) Kenilworth Castle to protect himself from his son’s followers.

Between 1210 and 1215 King John pays for extensive improvements to be made to Kenilworth Castle. An outer perimeter wall is built with towers at intervals. The old castle ditch becomes redundant and is replaced by another cut into the inner bank. A fortified dam is also built to create an enormous shallow lake upstream of the castle island.

1264: Simon de Montfort doesn’t like the way he is being treated by the king and begins to build a friendship with other barons who have lost power and influence in England. Simon gets control of England after the Battle of Lewes in 1264 and imprisons the king’s son, Lord Edward )Longshanks), and the king’s brother, the Earl of Cornwall. Edward manages to escape.

1265: De Montfort’s son, also called Simon, advances to Kenilworth from London to do battle with the king. Edward marches on de Montfort’s army by night, killing and capturing many men. Simon the Elder is killed at the Battle of Evesham on 4 August. Simon the Younger escapes to the castle and before being slain in battle, reaches a compromise with the king. Knowing that the castle is well stocked with food and arms, however, the garrison at Kenilworth holds out.

1266: Seige at Kenilworth - The royal forces move against Kenilworth at Easter 1266. King Henry III offers reasonable terms of surrender but the garrison refuses and sends back the messenger minus a hand. Siege engines are used, including a huge mobile tower called ‘The Bear’ which was filled with archers. The siege of Kenilworth lasts for nine months until an epidemic disease erupts inside the castle, forcing the garrison to surrender.

1279: More than a hundred knights and many ladies attend a great tournament at Kenilworth Castle that was organised by Roger de Mortimer. This assembly is known as the Round Table of Knights.

Web page:

Lewes Castle, Sussex ,England, in the town centre, off Castle Hill. 8 miles north-east of Brighton, on the A27-A277.

Lewes Castle is an impressive 11th century stone motte and bailey fortress, founded by William de Warrenne. In the early 12th century, Hamelin de Plantagenet founded the stone castle, when adding a flint-built hall, on top of the western motte. Unusually built with two mottes, they both supported shell keeps but only part of one survives, flanked by two 13th century semi-octagonal towers, which offer a fine view of the 1264 battle site.

Much of the castle was pulled down in the 1600's for building stone but the impressive 14th century Gatehouse remains.

Pembroke Castle, Pembroke, Dyfed, Wales

Norman castle, founded by Roger de Montgomery in 1093. It has the distinction of never haven fallen to the Welsh. In 1189 the castle came into the hands of William Marshal, who, over the next 30 years transformed the earth-and-timber castle into a mighty stone fortification. Still in tact, a must see. Lady Isabel Marshal born there.

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Pevensey Castle, West Sussex 

Founded by Robert de Mortain, where William first landed

Pevensey Castle, High Street, Pevensey, East Sussex, village centre, off High Street. 5 miles north-east of Eastbourne, on the A259.

The ruins of the medieval castle at Pevensey stand in one corner of a Roman fort, on what was once a peninsula surrounded by the sea and salt marshes. The Roman fort, named Anderida, was built in about AD 290. It is one of the largest surviving examples in Britain, with two thirds of its walls and towers still standing to almost their original height. Unlike most Roman forts that were built to a standard rectangular plan, Anderida has an irregular oval layout that follows the shape of the peninsular.

In September 1066, William, Duke of Normandy, landed his invading army at Pevensey, and immediately set up a defensive camp within the walls of the old Roman fort, before marching on to Hastings. Following his victory, William gave Pevensey to his half-brother, Robert de Mortain, Count of Mortain.

Tamsworth Castle, 16 miles north-east of Birmingham, Staffordshire England

Granted to "Old Roger" Marmion by WTC after the Battle of 1066. The Marmion family is a bit confusing, since the first Robert fought with WTC and his son married a de Beauchamp. The Robert Marmion who married Mathilda Beauchamp died about 1218, much too late to be this Robert. In 1294, the castle passed to the Alexander de Freville who married into the Marmion family.  1423, it passed to the Ferrers who married  Elizabeth, one of the last Freville women. Tourable and haunted. More here.

Tong Castle, Shropshire, Kent, England

Said to have been erected by Hengest, granted by Vortigen.

The castle was taken over by Roger d' Montgomery after the conquest in 1066, and then went into the Belmeis family.

Belmeis family, inherited by sole heiress Alice de Belmeis and her husband, Alan La Zouche, then to their children, Roger La Zouche and William (d 1199)

Tong Castle church became the setting for the grave of Little Nell from Charles Dickin's novel, The Old Curiousity Shop.

Warwickshire Castle, Warwickshire, off Castle Lane, 10 miles south-west of Coventry, tourist trap

William the Conqueror built the first castle at Warwick, in 1068. Over the years the castle was gradually rebuilt in stone, and by the late 14th century Thomas de Beauchamp had finished an extensive building programme that transformed the defences of the castle, adding the huge gatehouse and barbican and two massive towers that still dominate the castle today. Later as the military importance of the castle declined, the main living quarters were converted into a palatial residence.

The castle was home to the Earls of Warwick until 1978 when it was bought by the Tussaud's Group. The castle has since been extensively restored, and the expertise of the Tussaud's Studios has been used to create wax figures that help portray life in the castle during different periods of its history.

The Abergavenny Massacre and William de Braose

This William's parents are William and Bertha, daughter of Miles FitzWalter

1175 Seisyll ap Dyfnwal kills Henry, the third son of Milo FitzWalter, earl of Hereford

1175 William de Braose revengefully murdered Seisyllt ap Dyfnwal, lord of Castell Arnallt, a Welsh stronghold a few miles to the south-east, at de Braose's castle, Abergaveeny on Christmas Day.  On the pretext he summoned Seisyll ap Dyfnwal, his son Geoffrey and a number of other Welshmen from Gwent to Abergavenny Castle, and there they were all murdered out of hand. At the same time de Braose's retainers ravaged Seisyll's lands, killed his son Cadwaladr and captured his wife.

1182 - In retaliation for the Abergavenny massacre, Hywel ap Iorwerth, the Welsh lord of Caerleon, burnt the castle in 1182 and went on to destroy Dingestow Castle.

Edward II & Isabella

Everyone who has seen Braveheart wonders just how true the stories are.

Edward's favorite was Hugh le Despenser (hanged)

Isabella besieged Edward at Caerphilly Castle December 1326 to March 1327 but Edward fled.

Castle pages:


Historic castle located near Newport, Isle of Wight possibly back to Roman times.  The existence of a ruined wall suggests that there was a building there in late Roman times. The Jutes may have taken over the fort by the late 7th century. An Anglo-Saxon stronghold occupied the site during the 8th century. Around 1000, a wall was built around the hill as a defence against Viking raids.

After the Norman Conquest, William the Conqueror gave the Isle of Wight to his friend William fitzOsbern, who built a wooden structure at Carisbrooke. The castle is mentioned in Domesday Book under Alvington, and was probably raised by fitzOsbern, who was made first lord of the Isle of Wight. From this date, lordship of the Isle of Wight was associated with ownership of the castle, which thus became the seat of government of the island.  In 1100, Henry I gave Carisbrooke to Richard de Redvers. The castle was garrisoned by Baldwin de Redvers for the Empress Matilda in 1136, but was captured by Stephen of England.

The castle remained in the possession of Richard de Redvers family until 1293, when Countess Isabella de Fortibus sold it to Edward I, after which the government was entrusted to wardens as representatives of the crown. In the reign of Richard II it was unsuccessfully attacked by the French (1377). The keep was added to the castle in the reign of Henry I, and in the reign of Elizabeth I, when the Spanish Armada was expected, it was surrounded by an elaborate pentagonal fortification by Sir George Carey.

Charles I was imprisoned here for fourteen months before his execution in 1649. Afterwards his two youngest children were confined in the castle, and the Princess Elizabeth died there. Most recently it was the home of Princess Beatrice, daughter of Queen Victoria, as Governor of the Isle of Wight, 1896-1944.
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Pillar of Eliseg

The Pillar of Eliseg also known as Elise's Pillar or Croes Elisedd in Welsh, stands near Valle Crucis Abbey, Denbighshire, Wales, at Grid reference SJ204442. It was erected by Cyngen ap Cadell, king of Powys in honour of his great-grandfather Elisedd ap Gwylog. The form Eliseg found on the pillar is thought to be a mistake by the carver of the inscription.

The Latin inscription not only mentions several individuals described in the Historia Britonum, but also complements the information presented in that text. A generally accepted translation of this inscription, one of the longest surviving inscriptions from pre-Viking Wales, is as follows:

† Concenn son of Catell, Catell son of Brochmail, Brochmail son of Eliseg, Eliseg son of Guoillauc.

† And that Concenn, great-grandson of Eliseg, erected this stone for his great-grandfather Eliseg.

† The same Eliseg, who joined together the inheritance of Powys . . . out of the power of the Angles with his sword and with fire.

† Whosoever repeats the writing, let him give a blessing on the soul of Eliseg.

† This is that Concenn who captured with his hand eleven hundred acres [4.5 km²] which used to belong to his kingdom of Powys . . .

[the column is broken here]

† Britu son of Vortigern, whom Germanus blessed, and whom Sevira bore to him, daughter of Maximus the king, who killed the king of the Romans.

† Conmarch painted this writing at the request of king Concenn.

† The blessing of the Lord be upon Concenn and upon his entire household, and upon the entire region of Powys until the Day of Judgement.

The Pillar was thrown down by the Roundheads during the English Civil War and a grave under it opened. Edward Lhuyd examined the Pillar and copied the inscription in 1696. The lower half disappeared but the upper half was re-erected in 1779. The original inscription is now illegible.

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Pain's Castle  4 1/2m NW of Hay-on-Wye, Powys, Wales SO 166 462

The castle is named after its builder Pain Fitz-John and was probably captured and destroyed by Madog ab Idnerth soon after Pain was killed in July 1137. The castle was rebuilt but soon destroyed again by the Welsh. By the 1190s the castle was held by William de Braose, and his wife Maud is said to have defeated the Welsh at Pain's Castle in 1195. Prince Rhys of Deheubarth besieged the castle in 1196 but failed to take it before a truce was made, and there was another attack in 1198, this time by Gwenwynwyn of Powys, who was incensed by his cousin Talhaiarn having been dragged through Brecon, tied to a horse and beheaded. King John took possession of the castle in 1208 but it was captured in 1215 by the de Braose's ally Gwalter ab Einion Clud. Gwalter submitted to King John in 1216 and became lord of Elfael, but after he died c.1222 the Welsh of that lordship transferred their allegiance to Llywelyn ab Iorwerth, and the castle must have been destroyed around then.

The castle was rebuilt in stone by Henry III in 1231 with a round tower keep on the motte and curtain wall with an east gatehouse and several D-shaped flanking towers. The castle was granted to Roger Tosny in 1255 and a year after his death in 1264 it was captured and wrecked by the Welsh. Ralph Tosny rebuilt the castle in 1277 and it later passed to the Beauchamps, Earl of Warwick. It was garrisoned by them in 1401 against Owain Glyndwr. Only impressive earthworks remain, comprising a 9m high motte with a summit 22m long, a bailey 60m wide extending 45m north from the motte ditch, and a deep surrounding ditch with a counterscarp bank. On the west side a barbican projects into the ditch from the bailey SW corner.

Ivry Castle

William The Conqueror gave Castle Ivry to Roger de Beaumont  and his son, Robert de Beaumont, whjo was absent from England. Meanwhile, William died, Robert Curthose becomes Duke of Normandy exchanges Ivry for Castle Brienne in an agreement with Roger in 1099.  Robert was in a disagreement with the monks of Bec in Brienne territory, thusly angered by the exchange.  Robert goes to the Duke, demands Ivry back, Curthose gets mad, imprisons Robert, takes back Brionne and gives it to Robert, son of Baldwin de Meules.  Roger hears about all this, pleades to his old friend, Curthouse, to release his son and restore them to Brienne, which Curthose agrees to. Robert de Meules refuses to give the castle back, the Beaumonts take the castle by force.

Curthose takes off for the Crusades, William Rufus decides it is good time to get Vexin back from the King of France, putting Robert de Beaumont Comte de Meulent in an awkward situation. He owes alligence to England for Brienne and the France for Meulent.  He sides with England. Meanwhile Rufus starts a quarrel with the Maines ( Helias de Maine ?) for Castle of Dangueul, Robert ends up taking Helias prisoner, delivering him to Rufus, and Helias spends the remainder of his life imprisoned at Rouen.

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